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THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 
OF CALIFORNIA 

LOS ANGELES 



MANUAL 



OF 



NEW ZEALAND HISTORY. 



BY 

J. HOWARD WALLACE, 

ONE OF THE PlONEEK SETTLE!;.; OF THE CoJ.ONV 
(yanuary 22, 1840^. 

EIGHT YEARS CHAIRMAN OF COMMITTEES IN THE WELLINGTON PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 
AUTHOR OF " THE EAKLY HISTORY OF NEW ZEALAND." 



Under Divine did and the exertions of the British people, Ncir Zealand irould one 
day be the brightest i/i-m in Hrita'uCx croiciifher noblest effort at colonization" 
(Bishop Selwyn, on landini/ in Port Xidiulsoii, N.Z., Autjui* 12, 



FIRST EDITION. 



ffilelUngton, J^cto ^talmtb: 

PRINTED BY EDWAKUb & GBEEN, i OK J. II. WAIXACE, JUN., PuiiLiaHEii, GI;EY STUEET, 
AND SOLD BY ALL BOOKSELLEKS. 



(ALL RIGHTS RESERVED) 



DU 

4O 
(Jl5Wi 



TO 

SIR ROBERT STOUT, K.C.M.G., 
PEEMIEE 

OP THE COLONY OF NEW ZEALAND AND MINISTER OF EDUCATION, 

THIS 

MANUAL OF NEW ZEALAND HISTORY 
Is RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED, 

BY ONE OF THE 

EARLY PIONEERS OF THE COLONY. 

AUOU8T 18Sf). 



PEE FACE. 



THE want of a Manual of New Zealand History has been felt for some 
time past. This want the present compilation is intended to supply. 
The compiler presents to the public generally, to the youth of the 
Colony, and their instructors, what he believes will be found to be a 
useful precis of the history of New Zealand. 

The plan of the Manual will, as the compiler hopes, be found to be 
suitable to the education of the younger branches, while at the same 
time, the advanced student will find it serviceable in the pursuit of his 
studies. 

The most reliable sources have been consulted, added to which the 
compiler, as one of the pioneers of the Colony, and well acquainted 
with its early history, is enabled to give information regarding it, not 
easily obtainable at the present day. 

" Questions for Examination" have not been prepared, and it is left 
to the intelligent teacher, or parent, to apportion lessons of a length 
suitable to the capacity of each student, more especially as the 
paragraphs may be divided and subdivided at pleasure, and thus serve 
as exercises for the ingenuity both of pupil and instructor. 

The compiler, has not hesitated to avail himself fully of the labours 
of others, wherever he has found that those labours have produced 
authentic information. 

The work is, by permission, dedicated to Sir Eobert Stout, K.C.M.Gr., 
Premier of the Colony of New Zealand and Minister of Education. 

Wellington Lower Terrace, J. HOWARD WALLACE. 

August, 1886. 

N.B. The "Early History of New Zealand," preparing for the 
press, is frequently referred to in these pages. The History will 
be divided into five parts, viz.: Part I. Historical events from 
the discovery of the country to December 1853, when New 
Zealand ceased to be a Crown Colony. Part II. A detailed history of 
European settlement, and systematic colonization ; and how, and by 
whom the colony has been founded, with detailed history of events, 
arranged in chronological order, from private journals and unpublished 
and official documents. Part III. An alphabetical list of the Pioneer 
Settlers, founders of the colony. Part IV. Chapters on the native 
race and the provinces. Part V. A synopsis of the history of the 
Colony to the present date, and miscellaneous, with u complete index 
and maps. 

785497 



.-. 



INTRODUCTION. 



THE Bibliography of New Zealand History is extensive, commencing 
with A.D. 1642. Up to the year 1880, the works comprised the records 
of the early navigators, the narratives of travellers, Dr. Savage, John 
L. Nicholas, A. Earl, Major Cruise, W. Ellis, and others ; and the 
valuable records of the Rev. Samuel Marsden and the missionaries. 

New Zealand literature may be said to have commenced with the 
publication in 1880 of that interesting work " The New Zealanders," 
Library of useful knowledge, Charles Knight, London. This excellent 
work was revised and parts written by Lord Brougham. Since that 
period, hundreds of volumes, pamphlets, parliamentary papers and 
reports have been printed. 

In this manual of New Zealand History, now presented to the public, 
I have endeavoured to give a brief resume of what I trust will be found 
to be useful information, arranged in chronological order. 

I have in my larger History of New Zealand, now preparing for the 
press, given a detailed history of events arranged in chronological 
order from the discovery of the islands to the present date ; a record 
of those who peopled the country, and how they carried on the " heroic 
work of colonization." 

J. H. WALLACE. 
Wellington, August, 1886. 



EKRATA. 



Paragraph 47, second line : after " Captain King," read, " Governor of 
Norfolk Island," instead of " Governor of New South Wales." 

Paragraph 111, tenth line: for " Waikatu," read " Wakatu." 



NEW ZEALAND. 




GENEEAL DESCBIPTION.* 
SITUATION AND ABEA. 

Colony of New Zealand consists of two islands called the 
North and South Islands, and a small island at the southern 
extremity called Stewart Island. There are also several small islets, 
such as the Chatham and Auckland Isles, that are dependencies of 
the colony. The entire group lies between 34 and 48 S. lat. and 166 and 
179 E. long. The two principal islands, with Stewart Island, extend in 
length, 1,100 miles, but their breadth is extremely variable, ranging from 
46 miles to 250 miles, the average being about 140 miles, but no part is 
anywhere more distant than 75 miles from the coast. 

2. ABEA OF THE ISLANDS. 

Sq. Miles. Acres. 

The total area of New Zealand is about . . 100,000 or 64,000,000 
the North Island being .. 44,000 ,, 28,160,000 

the South Island being . . 55,000 35,200,000 

Stewart Island being . . 1,000 640,000 

It will thus be seen that the total area of New Zealand is somewhat 
less than that of Great Britain and Ireland. The North and South Islands 
are separated by a strait only thirteen miles across at the nanowest part, 
presenting a feature of the greatest importance from its facilitating 
intercommunication between the different coasts without the necessity of 
sailing round the extremities of the colony. 

3. The North Island was, up to the year 1876, divided into four provinces, 
viz. Auckland, Taranaki, Hawkes Bay, and Wellington. Taranaki and 
Hawkes Bay lie on the west and east coasts respectively, between the two 
more important provinces of Auckland on the north and Wellington 
on the south. 

4i The South Island was divided into five provinces, viz. Nelson, Marl- 
borough, Canterbury, Otago, and Westland (Southland was for a short time 
an independent province). % Nelson and Marlborough are in the north, 
Canterbury ' in the centre, Otago in the south, and Westland to the 
west of Canterbury. 

These provinces, however, in 1876, were divided into sixty-three counties 
thirty-two in the North Island, and thirty-one in the South Island and 
provincial government ceased to exist. 

From the Hand-book of New Zealand, by Dr. Hector, C.M.G., F.R.S. 



NAMES OF COUNTIES. 

D. In the North Island. Mongonui, Hokianga, Bay of Islands .Whangarei, 
Hobson, Rodney, Waitemata, Eden, Manukau, Coromandel, Thames, Piako, 
Waikato, Waipa, Raglan, Kawhia, Taranaki, Patea, Tauranga, Whakatane, 
Cook, Wairoa, Hawkes Bay, Wanganui, West Taupo, East Taupo, Rangitikei, 
Manawatu, Waipawa, Hutt, Wairarapa West, and Wairarapa East. 

D. In theSouth Island. Sounds, Marlborough, Kaiko\ira. Waimea, Colling- 
wood, Buller, Inangahua, Amuri, Cheviot, Grey, Ashley, Selwyn, Akaroa, 
Ashbnrton, (Jeraldine, Waimate, Westland, Waitaki, Waikouaiti, Maniototo, 
Vincent, Lake, Peninsular, Taieri, Bruce, Clutha, Tuapeka, Southland, 
Wallace, Fiord, and Stewart Island. 

MOUNTAINS AND PLAINS. 

7i New Zealand is mountainous, with extensive plains, which in the South 
Island lie principally on the eastern side of the mountain-range, while in 
the North Island the most extensive lowlands lie on the western side. In 
the North Island the interior mountainous parts are covered with dense 
forest or low shrubby vegetation ; while in the South Island these parts are 
chiefly open and well grassed, and are used for pastoral purposes. 

8. In the North Island the mountains occupy one-tenth of the surface, and 
do not exceed from 1,500 to 4,000 feet in height, with the exception of a few 
volcanic mountains that are more lofty, one of which, Tongariro (6,500 feet), 
is still occasionally active. Ruapehu (9,100 feet), and Mount Egmont 
(8,300 feet) are extinct volcanoes that reach above the limit of perpetual 
snow ; the latter is surrounded by one of the most extensive and fertile 
districts in New Zealand. 

9. The mountain-range in the South Island, known as the Southern Alps, 
is crossed at intervals by low passes, but its summits reach a height of from 
10,000 feet to 12,000 feet, and it has extensive snow-fields and glaciers. 
Flanking this mountain -range and occupying its greater valleys are 
extensive areas of arable land, which are successfully cultivated from the 
sea-level to an altitude of over 2,000 feet. 



HISTORY. 
FIRST SETTLEMENT BY MAORIS. 

10. New Zealand appears to have been first discovered and first peopled by 
the Maori race, a remnant of which still inhabits parts of the Islands. At 
what time the discovery was made, or from what place the discoverers came, 
are matters which are lost in the obscurity which envelopes the history of a 
people without letters. Little more can now be gathered from their traditions 
than that they were immigrants, and that when they came there were 
probably no other inhabitants of the countiy. Similarity of language 
indicates a Polynesian origin, which would prove that they advanced to 
New Zealand through various groups of the Pacific islands, in which they 
left remains of the same race, who to this day speak the same or nearly the 
same tongue. When Cook first visited New Zealand he availed himself of 
the assistance of a native from Tahiti, whose language proved to be almost 
identical with that of the New Zealanders, and through the medium of 
whose interpretation a large amount of the early information respecting the 
country and its inhabitants was obtained. 



DISCOVERY BY TASMAN. 

1 1 . The first Europea n who made the existence of New Zealand known to the 
civilised world, and who gave it the name it bears, was Tasman, the Dutch 
navigator, who visited it in 1642. Claims to earlier discovery by other 
European explorers have been raised, but they are unsupported by any 
sufficient evidence. Tasman did not land on any part of the Islands, in 
consequence of having had a boat's crew cut off by the natives in the bay 
now known as Massacre Bay, but contented himself by sailing along the 
western coast of the North Island, and quitted its shores without taking 
possession of the country in the name of the Government he served. 

VISITED BY CAPTAIN COOK. 

12. From the date of Tasman' s flying visit to 1769 no stranger is known to 
have visited the Islands. In the latter year Captain Cook reached them in 
the course of the first of those voyages of great enterprise which have made 
his name illustrious. 

The first of Cook's voyages of discovery began in August, 1768, when he 
was sent to Tahiti to observe a transit of Venus. After a run of eighty-six 
days from Tahiti, having touched at some other places, he sighted the coast 
of New Zealand on the 6th of October, 1769. On the 8th he landed in 
Poverty Bay, on the east coast of the North Island, which is therefore held 
to be the date of the first occupation of the country. 



THE NATIVE EACE. 
ORIGIN AND TRADITIONAL HISTORY. 

13, There is nothing on record respecting the origin of the Maori people ; 
but their arrival in New Zealand, according to tradition, is due to an event 
which, from its physical possibility, and from the concurrent testimony of 
the various tribes, is probably true in its main facts. 

14-. The tradition runs that generations ago a large migration took place 
from a distant island, to which the Maoris give the name of Hawaiki. Quarrels 
among the natives drove from Hawaiki a chief, whose canoe arrived upon 
the shore of the North Island of New Zealand. Returning to his home 
with a flattering description of the country he had discovered, this chief, it 
is said, set on foot a scheme of immigration, whereupon a fleet of large 
double canoes started for the new land. The names of most of the canoes 
are still remembered, and each tribe agrees in its account of the doings of 
the people of the principal "canoes" after their arrival in New Zealand; 
and from these traditional accounts the descent of the numerous tribes has 
been traced. Calculations based on the genealogical staves kept by the 
tohungas, or priests, indicate that about twenty-seven generations have 
passed since the migration, which would give for its date about the 
beginning of the fourteenth century. The position of Hawaiki is not 
known, but there are several islands of this or a somewhat similar name. 

NATIVE POPULATION, NORTH ISLAND. 

15. The North Island is now supposed to contain a native population of 
about 42,000, divided into many tribes ; but their number is probably 
very largely over-estimated. 

18. The most important tribe is that of the Ngapuhi, who inhabit the 
northern portion of the North Island, in the provincial district of Auckland. It 



was among the Ngapuhi that the seeds of Christianity and of civilization were 
first sown, and among them are found the best evidences of the progress 
which the Maori can make. Forty-six years ago the only to wnin New Zealand, 
Kororareka, in the Bay of Islands, existed within their territory. Their 
chiefs, assembled in February, 1840, near the Waitangi (" Weeping Water") 
Falls, were the first to sign the treaty by which the Maoris acknowledged 
themselves to be subjects of Her Majesty ; and although, under the 
leadership of an ambitious chief, Honi Heke, a portion of them in 1845 
disputed the English supremacy, yet after being subdued by English troops 
and their native allies (the Ngapuhi's own kinsmen) they adhered implicitly 
to the pledges they gave, and since then not a shadow of doubt has been 
cast on the fidelity of the "loyal Ngapuhi." 

NATIVE POPULATION, SOUTH ISLAND. 

17. The South Island natives number but about 2,000, and they are spread 
over an immense tract of country, living in groups of a few families, on the 
reserves made for them when the lands were purchased ; for the whole of the 
South Island has been bought from the native owners by the Government. 
Whatever may be the cause, it is a fact that the natives of the South Island 
are less restless and excitable than their brethren in the North. 

PHYSICAL CHARACTER. 

18. As a rule the Maoris are middle-sized and well formed, the average 
height of the men being 5 feet 6 inches ; the bodies and arms are longer than 
those of the average Englishman, but the leg bones are shorter, and the calves 
largely developed. In bodily powers the Englishman has the advantage. 
As a carrier of heavy burdens the native is the superior, but in exercises 
of strength and endurance the average Englishman surpasses the average 
Maori. 



GOVERNMENT. 

1 9 . The colony was formerly divided into nine Provinces, each of which had 
an elective Superintendent, and a Provincial Council, also elective. In each 
case the election was for four years, but a dissolution of the Provincial 
Council by the Governor could take place at any time, necessitating a fresh 
election both of the Council and the Superintendent. The Superintendent 
was chosen by the electors of the whole province ; the members of the 
Provincial Council by those of electoral districts. 

20 . As has been already mentioned, this form of government was abolished 
1876, and the country was then divided into Counties and Road Board 
Districts ; and to the County Councils and Municipalities the local adminis- 
tration formerly executed by the Provincial Governments is confided. The 
seat of Government was at Auckland up to the year 1865, when it 
was transferred to Wellington on account of the more central position 
of the latter place. 

FORM OF GOVERNMENT. 

21. Executive power is vested in a Governor appointed by the Queen, who 
acts in accordance with the principles of responsible Government. Legislative 
power is vested in the Governor and two Chambers : one called the Legislative 
Council, consisting at present of forty-nine members, nominated by the 
Governor for life ; and the other the House of Representatives, elected by 
the people from time to time, and now consisting of ninety-six members. 



Until 1882 the House of Representative \v.a elected for five years, but by 
au Act passed in 1879 its normal term of service is now limited to a period 
of three years, which, however, may be shortened if the Governor should 
see fit to exercise his prerogative of dissolving it. 

Except in matters of purely Imperial concern, the Governor, as a rule, 
acts O_L the advice of his Ministers. He has power to dismiss them and 
appoint others, but the ultimate control rests with the representatives of the 
people, who hold the strings of the public purse. 

ELECTORAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE. 

22 . Any man of twenty-one years and upwards, who isaborn or naturalized 
British subject, and who has held for six months a freehold of the clear 
value of 25, or who has resided for one year in the colony, and in an 
electoral district during the six months immediately preceding the registra- 
tion of his vote, is now, according to an Act passed in 1879, entitled to be 
registered as an elector and to vote for the election of a member of the 
House of Eepreseutatives ; also, every male Maori of the same age whose 
name is enrolled upon a ratepayers' roll, or who has a freehold estate of 
the clear value of 25. And, by another Act passed on the same day, the 
duty is imposed upon the Registrar of each electoral district of placing on 
the electoral roll the names of all persons who are qualified to vote. Any 
person qualified to vote for the election of a member of the House of 
Representatives is also, generally speaking, qualified to be himself elected a 
member of that House. There are, however, certain special disqualifications 
for membership, such as grave crime, bankruptcy, and paid office (other than 
what is called political) in the colonial service. Four of the members of the 
House are Maoris, elected under a special law by Maoris alone. 

2u. The Colonial Legislature, which as a rule meets once a year, has 
power generally to make laws for the peace, order, and good government of 
New Zealand. The Acts passed by it are subject to disallowance by the 
Queen, and in a very few cases are required to be reserved for the signification 
of the pleasure of Her Majesty, but there have not been, in the course of the 
twenty-seven years since the Constitution was granted, more than half a 
dozen instances of disallowance or refusal of assent. The Legislature has 
also, with a few exceptions, ample power to modify the Constitution of the 
colony. Executive power is administered, as before stated, in accordance 
with the usage of Responsible Government as it exists in the United 
Kingdom. 

Legislation concerning the sale and disposal of Crown lands, and the 
occupation of the gold fields, is exclusively vested in the Colonial Parliament. 

There are in most towns in the colony municipal bodies, such as Mayors 
and Town Councils in England, invested with ample powers for sanitary and 
other municipal purposes ; and there are in various country districts elective 
Road Boards charged with the construction and repair of roads and bridges, 
and with other local matters. There are also Central and Local Boards of 
Health appointed under a Public Health Act, which have authority to act 
vigorously, both in towns and in the country, for the prevention and 
suppression of dangerous and infectious diseases. 

24. The above short summary of the system of government in New 
Zealand suffices to show that the leading characteristics of the British 
Constitution self government and localized self-administration are pre- 
served and, in fact, extended under the New Zealand Constitution ; that 
there ie ample power to regulate its institutions, and to adapt them from 
time to time to the growth and progress of the colony, and to its varied 



requirements ; and that it is the privilege of every colonist to take a personal 
part to some extent, either as elector or elected, in the conduct of public 
affairs and in the promotion of the welfare of the community. 



CHBONOLOGICAL HISTOBY OF NEW ZEALAND, 
FBOM ITS DISCOVERY UNTIL THE PRESENT DATE. 

25. The discovery of New Zealand Has been ascribed to several of the 
early European navigators. 

26. Three European nations claim for their navigators the honour of 
discovering New Zealand. Frenchmen assert that Binot Paulmier de 
Gouneville, of Haifleur, in Normandy, visited the country in 1504. "The 
Maoris retain a tradition of the arrival of a ship, commanded by one 
Rongotute, about 1640, and that they plundered the ship and destroyed the 
crew." The Spaniards claim for Juan Fernandez the credit of the discovery. 

27i Birth and Name of New Zealand. The name of New Zealand first 
appears, as a record, on a piece of sculpture, consisting of two hemispheres 
representing a map of the world, cut in stone by the eminent sculptor 
Artus Quellinus, as an embellishment for the new Stadt House, built at 
Amsterdam in 1648 by Van Kampen, to replace the original House burnt 
in 1642. This sculp ture, valuable, not only as a work of art, but especially 
as depicting the most recent geographical discoveries made up to that date 
by the Dutch and other navigators in the Indian and Pacific Oceans, 
f onned the pavement of the Great Hall of the new building, the most public 
place of resort therein; and consequently the map became soon so completely 
obliterated by the constant tread of feet that not a trace of it could be 
found in 1773, when sought for by Sir Joseph Banks, nor did the oldest 
inhabitant retain any memory of it ; but a tracing of the most important 
part of it has been preserved by M. Thevenot, and thereon appears the name 
of New Holland for the western part of Australia, and Terre Australe for 
the eastern, whilst further to the east is shown Tasinan's Staaten Land, with 
the name of "Zealandia Nova." (Index to the Laws of New Zealand, fifth 
edition, by John Curnin, B.A., of the Inner Temple, Wellington 1885, 
pages 1 and 2). 

28. It is, however, generally acknowledged that the first authentic 
information made public concerning it was derived from the famous voyage 
of discovery undertaken by Tasman in 1642. Tasman left Batavia, August 
14, 1642, with two ships the "Heemskirk" and the " Zechaan " and, 
after discovering the southern patt of what is now known as Van Dieman's 
Land, he voyaged onwards in an easterly direction, in the hope of making 
further discoveries, and on the 18th December of the same year anchored in 
a bay in the South Island of New Zealand, now known as Golden Bay, to 
the westward of Blind Bay at the head of which stands the town of Nelson. 
The natives attacked him in canoes, and in consequence of three of his 
boat's crew being killed by the natives, he named the scene of this disaster 
Moordenaer's (Murderer's) Bay, and from thence until recently called 
Massacre Bay. The designation of Nova Zealandia was given by Tasman to 
the new found territory. Tasman did not re-visit New Zealand ; and from 
the date of his voyage to the year 1769, no account exists of any vessel 
having sighted its shores. 

29. On the accession of George III. to the throne of Great Britain, 
25th October 1760, a new era commenced in the history of English maritime 



discovery. His Majesty speedily manifested a strong desire for the 
acquisition of geographical and scientific knowledge. The voyages of Byron, 
and Wallis, and Carteret, were undertaken under the immediate auspices of 
the King ; and the discoveries made by them when sailing homeward from 
the South Pacific, through the Straits of Magellan, and across the Pacific 
Ocean out of the track of former voyages, strongly stimulated the public 
curiosity respecting the Terra Australia incognita. 

30. In 1767 the Eoyal Society resolved that it would be proper to send 
duly qualified persons into some part of the South Sea. to observe the transit 
of Venus over the sun's disc, which it was calculated would happen in the 
year 1769, but having no means of defraying the expenses of such an 
expedition, thev communicated their resolution to His Majesty King 
George III., requesting his aid in carrying it into execution. 

31. The "Endeavour," a barque of 370 tons, was fitted out and placed 
under the command of Lieutenant James Cook, who had distinguished 
himself in Canada, and in surveying the coast of Newfoundland. 

31 A. A short description of the appearance of the "Endeavour": She 
had the usual broad floor, and round tumbling-iu sides that gave much 
carrying power, with slight draught of water. The decks had greater shear 
or hollowness amidships, the quarter-deck being above the waist, and the 
poop rising above the quarter-deck. The high taffrail culminated in a 
gigantic fixed lantern, without which no vessel's appearance was then 
considered respectable." (Chapman's Centenary Memorial, Auckland, 
1870, p. x.) 

32. The " Endeavour" sailed from Plymouth on the 2 6th August, 1768 ; 
anchored at Tahiti, 13th April, 1769. An observatory, with a small fort for 
its protection, was erected in 17deg. 29min. 15sec. south latitude, and 
149deg. 32min. 30sec. west longitude; and on the 3rd June, the whole 
passage of the planet over the sun's disc was observed to great advantage, 
the sky being cloudless from sunrise to sunset. The first appearance of 
Venus on the sun was perceived at 9 hours 25 minutes 42 seconds a.m., and 
at 3 hours 32 minutes 10 seconds p.m. the planet had completed its long- 
looked-for transit. 

33. The calculations of the astronomers of the Royal Observatory, 
founded upon the observations made by Captain Cook of the transit of 
Venus, as seen at Tahiti, and of the planet Mercury afterwards, at Mercury 
Bay, in New Zealand (see par. 34), resulted in the mean distance of the earth 
from the sun being fixed at 94,879,956 miles, which recent observations have 
shown to be excessive. This, however, was inevitable, looking to the 
imperfect instruments then used. 

34-. After leaving Tahiti, Captain Cook discovered the Society Islands, 
and then sailed to the southward. On the 6th of October, 1769, laud was 
seen from the masthead , and the following day four or five ranges of hills 
rising one above the other, with a chain of mountains towering above all, 
were distinctly perceptible. From Cook's Voyages, vol. 2, page 283. 
Eaheinomauwe, or North Island. Friday, October 6th, saw land first time. 
On Sunday, October 8, 1869, at 4 p.m., Captain Cook cast anchor in the Bay 
of Turanga, an inlet on the east coast of the North Island. After some 
days spent in attempting to conciliate the natives, during which several 
encounters with them took place, he loft this locality, which he named 
Poverty Bay, and sailed to the southward, landing at Mercury Bay, to 
observe the transit of the planet Mercury. Friday, November 3rd, 1769, in 



8 

Mercury Bay, a desolate and barren place, Captain Cook cut on a tree near 
the watering place, the ship's name, with the year and month of his visit, 
and after displaying the English colours, took formal possession of it in 
the name of George III. 

35. He took his departure thence for Tolaga Bay, the Hauraki Gulf, the 
River Thames, and the Bay of Islands. Heathen sailed round Cape Maria 
Van Dieman, coasted along the western shore of the North Island, and 
sighted and named the picturesque snow-capped mountain, at the base of 
which the English settlement of Taranaki now stands, Mount Egmont. He 
then touched at Queen Charlotte's Sound, Cape Palliser, and Hawkes Bay, 
passing through the strait between the two main islands, which now bear his 
name Cook's Strait. 

36. On Tuesday, 30th January, 1770, Captain Cook, being then in Ship 
Cove, in Queen Charlotte's Sound, caused two poles to be made, and on each 
the name of the ship was inscribed, with the date of his visit ; and erecting 
one at the watering place, he carried the other over to Motuara, and placing 
it there hoisted the Union flag, and took formal possession of the inlet and 
adjacent country in the name of George III., giving to the inlet the name 
of Queen Charlotte's Sound. 

37. From Queen Charlotte's Sound he sailed down the coasts of the South 
and of Stewarts Island, without discovering the channel by which they are 
separated, turned the South Cape, and traced the opposite shores back to 
Cook's Strait ; giving to the north-west extremity of the Middle Island the 
name of Cape Farewell, he took his departure from thence for England on 
Saturday, 31st March, 1770; thus ended his first visit. Cook's original chart 
of New Zealand as explored by him 1769 and 1770 names the North 
Island Eaheinomauwe, and the South Island Tavai-Poenamoo. The 
insularity of Stewart's Island was not then known. These names originated 
thus : When the great navigator asked the natives the name of the North 
Island, he was told that it was " A thing fished from the sea by Maui." 
He mea hi no Maui ; and that the Middle Island was Te wahi pounamu, or 
"The place of the greenstone." (Thomson, Vol. i., p. 4). 

38. The South Island (Eakiura) was named Stewart's Island in honour 
of the sealer who, in 1808, discovered its insularity. 

39. De Surville, a French naval officer, was the next navigator who 
visited New Zealand. When Cook's ship, the "Endeavour," was working 
out of Doubtless Bay, in December 1769, in the North Island, De 
Surville's vessel, the "St. Jean Baptiste," from India, was sailing in, and 
neither navigator was aware of the other's vicinity. (Thomson v., 1, 232. 
Abbe Rochon's Voyages, 1791. 

40. On the llth May 1772, Marion de Fresne, another French seaman, 
anchored his two ships the " Marquis de Castries " and the " Mascarin " 
between Te Wai-iti Whais Island and the Motu Arohia (the Motuaro of 
navigators), in the Bay of Islands. On the 12th June an attack was made by 
the natives, and De Fresne and twenty-seven of the crew were killed. Crozet, 
second in command of the ship "Mascarin" inflicted terrible punishment 
on the natives for these murderous attacks. (See J. H. Wallace's Early 
History of New Zealand), 

41 . Captain Cook paid a second visit to New Zealand in the ' ' Resolution," 
and on Thursday, the 25th March, 1773, land was first seen. Captain 
Furneaux joined Captain Cook with the "Adventure," in Queen Charlotte's 





Sound, where they left goats, pigs, seeJs, c., with natives, and on the 7th 
of June, 1773, both vessels left the Sound, thus terminating Cook's 
second visit. 

42. His third visit took place in October, 1773. He first made the land 
on the 21st October, at Table Cape, and bearing away under Portland, made 
Cape Kidnappers. A number of natives came on board, and Cook gave 
them some pigs, and garden seeds. The natives remembered the visit of the 
"Endeavour'' in 1770. After sailing down the coast and passing Cape 
Campbell, the "Eesolution" anchored in Ship Cove, Queen Charlotte's 
Sound. On Thursday 25th, he left the Sound, and on the 26th November 
passed Cape Palliser, and stood out to sea, thus ending his third visit. 

43. He again visited the Islands in October, 1774, seeing Mount Egmont 
at day-break on the 17th, which he found covered with snow. He then 
proceeded to Ship Cove, and thoroughly explored Queen Charlotte's Sound. 
Ho left on the llth November, 1774, and arrived in England, July 29, 1775. 

4-4- Captain Cook again visited New Zealand in 1777. Monday, 10th 
February made Bock's Point. Tuesday, llth, and Wednesday, 12th, passed 
Cape Farewell, Stephens Island, and anchored in Ship Cove, Queen 
Charlotte Sound. Tawritrarooa, a native, described a vessel which he said 
had visited New Zealand before Cook had put into port, on the north-west 
coast of Terrawitte (Terawhiti), a few years before he arrived in the Sound 
in the " Endeavour," 1769. Tuesday 25th February, weighed and stood out 
of the Sound, and through the Strait, 'thus ending the fifth and last visit. 

45. During these visits Captain Cook had much intercourse with the 
natives, both on shore and on shipboard, and at each visit introduced several 
useful plants and animals. In 1777, he found, some fine potatoes and useful 
vegetables grown from the seeds introduced by him on his first visit. 

4uA. " Cook's old ship, the " Discovery," was some time since removed 
from Woolwich, and is now (August 20, 1834) moored off Deptford as a 
receiving ship for convicts." (Robertson's Circum. Globe, p. 409.) 

46. New Zealand remained un visited by any European ships from 1777 
to 1791, when Captain Vancouver touched at Dusky Bay, while engaged on 
an expedition to survey and explore the north-west coast of America. About 
this time also an intercourse sprang up with the newly formed British 
settlement at Sydney, and various whaling and sealing ships began shortly 
afterwards to frequent these shores. 

47. The first intercourse between New South Wales and New Zealand, 
commenced in May, 1793, when Captain King, Governor of New South 
Wales, sent a vessel to cruise about the New Zealand coast, to procure 
natives to teach the English at Norfolk Island to dress the flax (Phormium 
tenax), which abounds there as in New Zealand. Two natives were enticed 
on board, and were returned to their homes after a six month's detention. 
(Lieutenant Collins' History of New South Wales, London, 1804, p. 341.) 

48. Admiral D'Entrecasteaux, when searching for La Perouse arrived 
off New Zealand in 1793. " In 1785, La Perouse sailed from France for the 
Pacific, with the " Boussole," and "Astrolabe" under his command, and 
was last heard of from Botany Bay, in March, 1788. Several expeditions 
were subsequently despatched in search of Perouse, but no certain informa- 
tion was obtained until captain Dillon, of the East India ship " Research," 
ascertained that the French ships had been cast away on the New Hebrides, 
authenticated by articles which he brought to Calcutta, 9th April, 1828." 
(Haydn's Dictionary of Dates, London, 1881, p. 465.) 



10 

49i In 1771, Benjamin Franklin and Mr. Dalrymple proposed, "That a 
ship should be filled with various useful articles, and sent to trade with the 
natives of New Zealand, a proposition indicative of the accurate judgment 
the philosopher had formed of the character of the people." (Dodsley's 
Annual Register, 1771). This paper is dated August 29, 1771, and may be 
found among Franklin's " Miscellaneous Works." 

50, Excepting in the sole instance of an English sailor, who lived for 
some years among the natives about the year 1804-7 there is no record 
of other white men having lived on shore, between the years 1793 and 1814. 
NOTE. "In 1823, Tippahee (Te Pehi, the brother of Rauparaha) carried 
out with him the first European, who probably ever took up his abode in 
New Zealand, a young man named George Bruce." (The New Zealanders, 
London, Nattali, 1847, p. 63; also J. H. Wallace's Early History of 
New Zealand.) 

51. Intercourse with the natives: As early as 1793, the whaling ships of 
different nations began to touch on the coast. Their intercourse was marked 
by great cruelty and inj ustice on the one part, great treachery and dishonesty 
on the other, and a revolting blood-thirstiness and strong spirit of revenge 
on both sides. 

52 In 1805, Mr. Savage, an English surgeon, took the first New 
Zealander to Great Britain ; his name was Mohanger. Matara, a son of 
Te Pehi, visited England in 1807. Buatara visited England 1809. 

53, In the year 1809, occurred the massacre of crew and passengers of the 
ship " Boyd," 500 tons, captain Thompson. This vessel started from Sydney 
for England, with the intention of touching at Wangaroa, for spars. She 
carried seventy Europeans, and five New Zealanders, who were shipped to' 
work their passages to their own country. The captain and a considerable 
number of the crew were killed and eaten ; and all left on board, save one 
woman, two children, and a cabin boy, shared the same fate. The lad was 
saved by George (a native) in gratitude for a trifling kindness, and the 
woman and children preserved themselves by concealment. These Europeans 
were rescued from the natives by Te Pehi and Mr. Berrey, the supercargo of 
the ship " City of Edinburgh," then takiog in spars at the Bay of Islands. 
(See Berrey's narrative, Constable's Miscellany, vol. iv. pp. 350-351 ; also 
the Sydney Morning Herald.} 

54. The native "George," the instigator of the horrid massacre of the 
" Boyd," was seen by captain Cruise (of the 84th Regiment Foot), in 1820, 
when the " Dromedary " went to the Bay of Islands. He states " ' George ' 
was detested by his people." (Cruise's Journal, pp. 271-272.) 

55 The scenes of barbarism enacted between the Europeans and Maoris 
had attracted general attention, and led to the establishment of a Mission 
station at the Bay of Islands. 

55A, The Reverend Samuel Marsden, Colonial Chaplain of New South 
Wales the first Missionary to New Zealand landed at the Bay of Islands, 
December 1814. 

56, In 1814, a proclamation published in the Government Gazette, 
Sydney, appointed Mr. Thomas Kendall, and the chiefs Ruatara, Hongi, and 
Koro Koro, magistrates for the Bay of Islands, to suppress outrages. 

57i The appointment of Mr. Kendall as Resident Magistrate, at the Bay 
of Islands was the commencement of British authority in New Zealand. 



tl 

00. At this era every vessel approaching the coast had boarding nets, and 
during three years ending 1817, one hundred New Zealanders were slain by 
Europeans, in the immediate vicinity of the Bay of Islands. (Proceedings of 
the Church Missionary Society, Vol. v.) Such murders did not pass 
unavenged, although the blows given fell on the wrong parties. 

59. The brig "Agnes," of six guns, with fourteen men on board, 
stranded at Poverty Bay, in 1816, and all the crew, save John Eutherford, 
were killed and eaten. (The New Zealanders, London, Nattali, 1847, Cap. 
v., pp. 86 to 101, John Rutherford's narrative.) " A whale ship was cast 
ashore at Wanganui, in 1820, and all the crew, except one European and 
one negro, were killed and eaten." (Thomson, Yol. i. 253). 

60. In 1823, efforts were made in the British Parliament to stop these 
inhuman scenes, by passing an Act- giving to the Supreme Courts of 
Australia and Tasmania, jurisdiction over British subjects in New Zealand, 
Act 4, Geo. IY., cap. 97, but with little effect. 

61. In 1820, Hongi, Hika (the Napoleon of New Zealand) and Waikato 
embarked for England, accompanied by Mr. Kendall, a missionary ; and 
on arriving at London, were of great assistance to Professor Lee, of 
Cambridge, in the construction of a vocabulary and grammar of the New 
Zealand language. 

62. When the ambitious warrior Hougi visited England, in 1820, 
George IV. gave him an audience, and dismissed him with a suit of armour, 
and many presents. On his return from England, he visited Sydney, sold 
all the valuable presents, excepting the coat of mail, and purchased 300 
muskets, returned to New Zealand, and commenced exterminating several 
tribes in the north. Early in 1822, Hongi embarked in his war canoes at 
the Bay of Islands, with 1000 followers, steered up the Hauraki Gulf, and 
entered the river Thames. Totara, a fortification standing on its left bank, 
was taken by stratagem, and 300 of the enemy were eaten. (See Eev. 
S. Marsden's Journal, Church aad Wesleyan Missionary Reports, Christianity 
among the New Zealanders, by the Right Rev. William Williams, D.C.L., 
Bishop of Waiapu, London, 1867, and numerous other publications.) 

63. The lawless doings of Europeans in New Zealand, so far attracted 
the notice of the Imperial Government, that Acts of Parliament were passed 
in 1823, and in 1828, whereby the jurisdiction of the Courts of Justice in 
New South Wales (of which colony New Zealand had, in 1814, been 
proclaimed a dependency) was extended to all British subjects in New 
Zealand. "An act to provide for the administration of justice in New 
South Wales." (9 Geo. IV., c. 83, 1828.) 

64. An attempt was made to colonize New Zealand ; in 1825, a company 
was formed in London, of highly influential men, among whom was Lord 
Durham, to colonize New Zealand. A vessel was fitted out, sixty settlers 
embarked, and late in the year 1826 they arrived in New Zealand. The 
place chosen for the settlement was near the mouth of the Hokie nga River ; 
and here captuin Herd, the Company's agent, purchased a quantity of laud, 
and two islands in the Hauraki Gulf. Unltickilj 7 for the success of the 
colony, the Hokianga natives were at war with those of the Bay of Islands, 
when Captain Hera's settlers disembarked ; and the sight of a war dance, 
and alarming reports of battles won and lost in the neighbourhood, so 
terrified the colonists that most of them left the country, ufter a short 
residence. (Thompson, Vol. i. 269.) 



12 

65. In 1831, a letter applying for the protection of King William IV., 
signed with the names or marks of thirteen chiefs residing in the Bay of 
Islands, was transmitted to England by the Eev. Mr. Yates, then head of 
the mission in New Zealand. Eepresentations were also forwarded at the 
same time from the Governor of New South Wales, suggesting the appoint- 
ment of a person in the character of British resident at New Zealand. 

66. The result of these joint solicitations was the compliance of the 
Imperial Government with the recommendation for the appointment of a 
resident. And in 1833, Mr. James Busby, a settler in New South Wales, 
was appointed to that position, with a view to check the enormities 
complained of, and to give protection to the well-disposed settlers and traders. 

67. Lord Goderich, in the name of King William IV., in answer to the 
address, June 14, 1832, expressed His Majesty's sorrow for the injuries 
which the New Zealanders had sustained from some of his subjects. The 
letter, and various presents from the King, were presented to the assembled 
chiefs by Mr. Busby, on his arrival in the colony in May, 1833. 

68. Lieutenant McDonnell, R.N., was appointed, in 1835, to be a 
temporary British Eesident in Hokiaiiga, with similar instructions to those 
of Mr. Busby. 

69. Wreck of the "Harriet." In April, 1834, the barque "Harriet," 
J. Guard, master, was wrecked at Taranaki, near to the spot were Ne\p 
Plymouth now stands, and nearly all the crew massacred. Guard escaped, 
and with some of the sailors, went to Sydney, and reported the circum- 
stances. The Government of New South Wales sent His Majesty's ship 
"Alligator," captain Lambert, and a company of the 50th Regiment, to 
rescue the prisoners. Mrs. Guard and children were rescued, not, however, 
without a struggle, in which several natives lost their lives. (Report of 
Select Committee, House of Commons on Aborigines, 1837, Parl. Papers, 
1835, No. 585, Marshall's account.) 

70. In 1834, Mr. Busby suggested to the Governor of New South Wales, 
that New Zealand should have a national flag, and that ships owned by 
New Zealanders should be registered. Sir Richard Bourke sent three 
pattern flags by H.M.S. " Alligator," to the Bay of Islands, for the chiefs 
to select from. The one selected was an ensign, with stars and stripes, 
which was afterwards altered, and was hoisted, inaugurated with a salute of 
twenty-one guns from H.M.S. ' 'Alligator." An account of these proceedings, 
dated April, 1834, was transmitted by the Governor of New South Wales to 
the Imperial Government. Lord Aberdeen in reply (dated December, 1834), 
approved of them in the name of the King, and stated that the Admiralty 
had instructed their officers to give effect to the New Zealand Registers, and 
to acknowledge and respect the national flag of the country. (Parliamentary 
papers, 1840, Lord Aberdeen's letter.) 

71. In 1835, a declaration was issued by the Baron Charles Hyppolitus 
de Thierry who announced his intention as " Charles, Baron de Thierry, 
Sovereign chief of New Zealand, and King of Nuhuheva," one of the 
Marquesas Islands of a formal declaration of his intention to establish in 
his own person an independent sovereignty in New Zealand. On receipt of 
this information, Mr. Busby issued an official address to his countrymen in 
New Zealand, dated Bay of Islands, 10th October, 1835, calling together 
the native chiefs, in order to inform them of the Baron de Thierry's attempt 
on their independence. 



13 

72i The result was a meeting of chiefs ; an address from Mr. Busby, 
October, 1835 ; and a Declaration of Independence by the chiefs of New 
Zealand, under the designation of "The United Tribes of New Zealand." 
In November, 1835, Mr. Busby transmitted a copy of the Declaration to 
the Under- Secretary of State (Mr. Hay.) 

73. In May, 1836, Lord Glenelg, in a despatch to Major-General Sir 
Richard Bourke, Governor of New South Wales, acknowledges the receipt of 
the Declaration of Independence, and concludes, " His Majesty will continue 
to be the parent of their infant state, and its protector from all attempts on its 
independence." (Official Despatches.) 

74-. In 1836, the evils of continued anarchy in New Zealand became 
more aggravated, in consequence of the desultory colonization then taking 
place at various spots along its coast, and a petition to the Crown for 
protection was drawn up and signed by the Missionaries, and some of the 
most respectable of the European settlers. The merchants of London, in 
conjunction with the principal houses engaged in the South Sea trade, also 
signed a memorial to the Crown, setting forth the evils of such a state of 
affairs, and a Committee of the House of Commons on Aborigines, set 
before the British public the state of things in New Zealand. 

75. In 1837, Sir Richard Bourke, Governor of New South Wales, 
despatched Captain Hobson, then commanding Her Majesty's ship " Rattle- 
snake," to the Bay of Islands, to protect British subjects and report upon 
the lawless proceedings of the natives at Kororareka. Captain Hobson, in 
an able report, dated August, 1837, after adverting to the decrease of the 
natives, and the simultaneous increase of the British subjects, he speaks of 
the latter as every day acquiring considerable possessions of land, and 
suggests that certain remedial action should be taken to avert the disastrous 
consequences likely to ensue from the conduct of many of the Europeans 
towards the natives. 

76. Kororareka, at this period the only large settlement in New Zealand, 
was situated at the Bay of Islands. In 1838, it was the most frequented 
resort for whalers in all the South Sea Islands, and its European population, 
although fluctuating, was then estimated at a thousand souls. " It had a 
church, five hotels, and numberless grog-shops. For six successive years a 
hundred whale ships were anchored in the Bay. Thirty-six large whale 
ships were anchored at Kororareka at one time, in 183H; and in 1838, 
fifty-six American vessels entered the Bay, twenty-three English, twenty-one 
French, one Breman, twenty-four from New South Wales, and six from the 
coast." (Thomson, Vol. i. 285.) 

77. The Bay of Islands was also the seat of the Mission Station, having a 
large native population. 

1 0. In May, 1838, a public meeting was held at Kororareka, to determine 
the best means for affording protection to life and property, resulting in the 
formation of a society called the Kororareka Association. Shortly after the 
formation of the Provisional Government of Kororareka, steps were taken 
by Her Majesty's ministers for the establishment of some competent 
authority within the Islands of New Zealand. A Select Committee of the 
House of Lords collected a mass of information, which but too fully confirmed 
previous representations of the deplorable condition of the islands. 

79. In the year 1836, a Committee of the House of Commons inquired 
into the subject of the disposal of Waste Lands, with a view to colonization, 
and in 1837 a Society was formed in London, with Lord Durham at its head. 



14 

In June 1838, Mr. Francis Baring introduced a Bill into Parliament which 
embodied the views of the Association; the Bill was opposed by Her 
Majesty's Ministers and thrown out. 

80. The colonization of New Zealand was announced to the British public 
on Saturday, April 27, 1839, when a splendid dejenue was given at 
Lovegrove's West India Dock Tavern, Blackwall, on the occasion of the 
completion of the equipment of a vessel to proceed to New Zealand, for the 
purpose of forming settlements in those islands, under the superintendence 
and management of a company formed in London. Mr. Hutt, M.P. acted 
as chairman, Q-. F. Young, late M.P. for Tynemouth, deputy-chairman. 
The Earl of Durham, Lord Petre, and other distinguished noblemen and 
gentlemen interested in the colonization of New Zealand were present. 
(Morning Chronicle, April 29, 1839 ; see also J. H. "Wallace's Early History 
of New Zealand.) 

81. "To the late John Lambton, first Earl of Durham, and Mr. Edward 
Gibbon Wakefield, England is chiefly indebted for the systematic colonization 
of New Zealand. After the failure of the scheme of 1825, of which Lord 
Durham wa - the most influential mover, the formation of a colony was 
considered hopeless. On several occasions the question was mooted, but 
those persons to whom it was referred invariably asked, who would prefer 
migrating to a country inhabited by cannibals." (Thomson, Vol. ii., p. 4.) 

82. The New Zealand Company was then formed : Governor, The Earl of 
Durham ; Deputy-Governor, Mr. Joseph Somes, and a directory composed 
of noblemen and leading public men in Great Britain. On the 2nd May, 
1839, the company issued a prospectus ; and on the 12th May, 1839, before 
the directors had divulged their scheme to the public, the ship "Tory," 
(Captain Chaffers, R.N.), 400 tons" burden, sailed for New Zealand, having 
on board Colonel William Wakefield, the company's chief agent ; Mr. 
Edward Jerningham Wakefield ; Dr. Ernest Dieffenbach, naturalist to the 
New Zealand Company ; Mr. Charles Heaphy (afterwards Major Heaphy, 
V.C.) as draughtsman ; Mr. John Dorset, surgeon ; and a New Zealander 
named Ngati. Two days after the ship was clear of England's shores, the 
Directors announced that the Company was formed. After a rapid passage 
of ninety-six days, the "Tory" sighted New Zealand on the noon of 
16th August, 1839. 

83. On the following day, August 17th, the "Tory" entered Queen 
Charlotte Sound. After exploring Queen Charlotte Sound and the Pelorus, 
Colonel Wakefield crossed Cook's Strait. "September 20, 1839. "We 
weighed anchor at daylight, and left the Sound with the tide and north- 
west wind. We had to beat into the harbour of Port Nicholson, and 
came to an anchor at three in the afternoon." (See Colonel Wakefield's 
Journal in the Twelvth Report of the Directors of the New Zealand 
Company ; also J. H. Wallace's Early History of New Zealand.) 

84. On the 30th September, 1839, Colonel William Wakefield, the New 
Zealand Company's principal agent, took formal possession of Port 
Nicholson in the name of the Company under a royal salute, and the New 
Zealand Flag was hoisted on an immense staff, erected for the purpose. 
There was a war dance, a war song, and a dinner. " The native oven which 
contained our dinner, was then opened, and we were invited to attend. 
After doing justice to the joints of a pig, which had been killed for the 
occassion, and the whole of which we were bound in native politeness to take 
away with us, however little we might eat, we drank the healths of the 
chiefs and people of Port Nicholson, in champagne, and christening the 



flag staff, took formal possession 
the Company, amidst the hearty^, 
natives.". (Colonel Wakefield's Jou^I . 

History of New Zealand.) 

85. September, 1839, before hearing of the proceedings of the prelimu. 
expedition, four of the Company's ships sailed from Gravesend, vii, 

" Cuba," surveying ship, with Captain Smith, R.A., and staff, "Aurora'' 
(arrived at Port Nicholson, January 22, 1840), "Oriental," "Adelaide," 
conveying the first body of pioneer settlers who commenced the 
systematic British colonization of New Zealand. Other vessels speedily 
followed, and before the end of the year 1840, 1200 settlers had disembarked 
at Port Nicholson. The foundation of Wellington (first called Britannia) 
dates from the 22nd January, 1840. 

86. The Colonial Office was completely surprised at the energetic action 
of the New Zealand Company. Queen Victoria's Government had been 
hesitating about sending a Consul to New Zealand ever since the formation 
of the Republican Association at the Bay of Islands, in 1838, and the New 
Zealand Company's proceedings decided the question. Letters patent were 
issued under the great seal of the United Kingdom, on the loth June, 1839, 
extending the boundaries of New South Wales to include any part of New 
Zealand that may be acquired in sovereignty by Her Majesty. 

87. CONSTITUTION OF THE COLONY : The Bill of Rights : Declaring the 
rights and liberties of the subject ; and among them, the right to petition 
and to have arms for defence. 1 Will, and Mary, Sess. II., c. 2. 

The Act of Settlement : For the further limitation of the Crown, and the 
better securing the rights and liberties of the subject, 12 and 13 Will. 
III., c. 2. The Colony created: Provision under which New Zealand was 
created a separate Colony, 3 and 4 Viet., c. 62, s. 2. 

88. Captain William Hobson, R.N., who visited New Zealand in 1837, 
when commanding H.M.S. "Rattlesnake," in 1837, was immediately 
ordered out for the purpose of erecting the country into a British colony. 
The Treasury minute of 19th July, 1839, directs him to proceed to New 
Zealand as Consul, to endeavour to obtain the sovereignty of the country, 
and then to act as Lieutenant-Governor. Captain Hobson sailed in H.M.S. 
' ' Druid," 44 guns, Captain Lord J. Churchill, and after a prosperous 
voyage reached Sydney, December, 1839, took the oaths of office as 
Lieutenant-Governor of New Zealand, and sailed from Sydney, accompanied 
by a Treasurer, a Collector of Customs, a Police Magistrate, two Clerks, a 
Sergeant, and four Troopers of the Mounted Police of New South Wales, 
and landed at the Bay of Islands, 29th January, 1840. 

89. Captain Hobson, immediately on his arrival, issued an invitation to 
all the British subjects to meet him next day at the Church at Kororareka, 
and circulated notices, printed in the Maori Language, that on the 5th 
February, he would hold a meeting of the chiefs of the confederation, and 
of the chiefs who had not signed the Declaration of Independence, for the 
purpose of discussing a treaty to be proposed for their consideration. 

89 A. The first New Zealand newspaper published was the New Zealand 
Gazette, No. 1, published in London, August 21, 1839. The second number 
of this paper was published in Port Nicholson, April 18th, 1840, by Samuel 
Revans, a distinguished pioneer settler, and the father of the Press in New 
Zealand. (See J. H. Wallace's Early History of New Zealand.) 



^e following day (February 6), two 

. jreat Seal, extending the limits of New 

^ow Zealand; the other under the royal signet, appoint- 

^caiu .tlobson, Lieutenant- Governor over such portions of New Zealand 

aall hereafter be added to Her Majesty's dominions. Two proclamations, 

a,med by Sir George Gipps, were afterwards promulgated. The first 

asserted Her Majesty's authority over all British subjects in New Zealand, 

and the second announced the illegality of any title to land not confirmed 

by the Crown. 

91. The Treaty of Waitangi : The first meeting at which this treaty was 
presented to the northern chiefs for their approval and adoption, was held at 
Mr. Busby's station, at Waitangi, on the 5th and 6th of February, 1840 ; 
and which was fully reported by the Lieutenant-Governor to H.E. Sir 
George Gipps, in a despatch, dated Her Majesty's ship "Herald," Bay of 
Islands, 5th February, 1840. (See fac-similes of the Declaration of 
Independence and the Treaty of Waitangi, page 7, Wellington, by authority, 
George Didsbury. Government Printer, 1877 ; see also J. H. Wallace's 
Early History of New Zealand, for a copy of this important historical 
document, with a series of copies of the Treaty itself as finally adopted, 
signed by the principal chiefs in various parts of both Islands, with their 
signatures, marks, or signs, or from the tatoo on the writer's own face, 
attested by responsible witnesses.) 

92. From Waitangi, the treaty was taken about the country by mission- 
aries and Government agents for signature. Captain Hobson took it in 
person to Hokianga, and up the river Thames. Other emissaries were 
despatched with it to the eastern and western coasts of the North Island, to 
Cook's Strait, Stewart's Island, and the Middle Island. Before the end of 
June, 1840, 512 signatures had been obtained to it. 

93. The French attempt to colonize New Zealand : The "Com tede Paris," 
having on board emigrants, had left France in October, 1839, for Akaroa in 
the Middle Island, and the French frigate "L'Aube" was on the eve of 
sailing for the same destination, with the intention of founding a French 
colony, under an Association denominated the Nauto-Bordelaise Company. 
A few days before the " Comte de Paris " arrived at her destination, H.M.S. 
" Britomart," Captain Stanley, arrived at Akaroa, and immediately hoisted 
the British flag, and held a Magisterial Court. The sovereignty and 
occupancy of Britain was formally proclaimed, before the arrival of either 
the French frigate " L'Aube," or the " Comte de Paris " with the emigrants. 
The New Zealand Company ultimately purchased the claim of the Nauto- 
Bordelaise Company for 4,500. (See J. H. Wallace's Early History of 
New Zealand.) 

94. Auckland, the first seat of government, was established at the site 
of the present town of Eussell, a few miles distant from Kororareka, in the 
Bay of Islands, but after a while it was found to be an unsuitable place for 
the capital, in consequence of an insufficiency of available land. This led 
to the choice of another site, on the right bank of the Waitemata and on 
the 19th September, 1840, the British flag was hoisted at Auckland, the name 
given to the future capital. The choice was ultimately confirmed by Her 
Majesty's Government, and in January, 1841, Captain Hobson took up his 
abode there. This was one year after the New Zealand Company had 
commenced the systematic colonization of the country. 



17 

95. The British settlers at Port Nicholson (Britannia, afterwards Welling- 
ton), the first and principal settlement of the New Zealand Company, in the 
absence of any form of government for the preservation of order and mainten- 
ance of law, established a pro visional constitution, Colonel William Wakefield, 
president, and in the first newspaper published iii the colony April 18, 1840 
issued an " Address from the Committee of Colonists, calling the attention of 
the colonists to two documents published in this day's Gazette. One, the 
agreement, or contract of government, signed in London by the authority of 
the immigrants ; and the other, a ratification of that agreement, subject to 
certain modifications by the sovereign chiefs of the district." The ratification 
sismed and published by S. Eevans, secretary ; numerous appointments were 
made. The Committee of Colonists met several times, and the " Council" 
transacted public business till May 23, 1840. Lieutenant- Governor Hobson 
issued a proclamation declaring the proceedings of the Council illegal, and 
at the same time informed the Secretary of State for the Colonies, "according 
to my opinion, unaided by legal advice, the proceedings of the Association 
at Port Nicholson amount to high treason." (Official documents, and full 
details in J. H. Wallace's Early History of New Zealand.) 

96. On the 21st May, 1840, the Governor proclaimed the sovereignty 
over the North Island by virtue of the Treaty of Waitangi, and over the 
Southern Islands, on the ground of discovery. 

97. The visit to New Zealand of Lady Franklin : On the 3rd March, 
1841, H.M.S. "Favorite" visited Wellington, having Lady Franklin, 
the wife of the Governor of Van Dieman's Land, and her suite, as 
passengers. Lady Franklin was completing a tour of the Australian 
Colonies. Before her departure from Wellington, a congratulatory address 
was presented to her Ladyship by a deputation from the settlers, which 
alluded to the friendly feeling displayed towards them by Sir John Franklin, 
and to her literary and scientific acquirements. (J. H. Wallace's Early 
History of New Zealand.) 

NOTE. Sir John Franklin, with Captains Crozier and Fitz-James, in 
H.M. ships "Erebus," and "Terror" (carrying in all 138 persons), sailed 
on his third arctic expedition of discovery and survey, from Greenhithe, on 
24th May, 1845. Their last despatches were from the Walefish Islands, 
dated 12th July, 1845. Their protracted absence caused intense anxiety, 
and several expeditions were sent from England and elsewhere in search of 
them, and coals, provisions, clothing, and other necessities were deposited in 
various places in the Arctic seas, by our own, and by the American Govern- 
ment, by Lady Franklin, and numerous private persons. (Haydn's 
Dictionary of Dates, London, 1881, p. 345.) 

"THE NORTH-WEST PASSAGE was discovered by Sir John Franklin and 
his companions, who sailed down Peel and Victoria Straits, since named 
Franklin Strait. On the monument in Waterloo Place is inscribed, ' To 
Franklin and his brave companions, who sacrificed their lives in completing 
the discovery of the North- West Passage, A.D., 1847-8.' Lady Franklin 
received a medal from the Royal Geographical Society. " (Haydn's Dictionary 
of Dates, London, 1881, p. 563.) " A bronze statue (above life size) has 
been erected in memory of Franklin, on the spot whore he resided at Old 
Government House, Hobart Town, now called Franklin Square. It stands 
on a pedestal of polished granite, with an inscription." (History of 
Tasmania, by James Fenton, London, Macmillan and Co., 1884, p. 160.) 

98. In June, 1840, Willoughby Shortland, Colonial Secretary, made an 
official visit to Port Nicholson, and informed the Lieutenant-Governor of 



18 

the loyalty of the settlers. ' ' I was again assured of the loyalty of the settlers, 
and that they were actuated in their proceedings solely with a view to 
preserve the peace, and to protect their property." 

98A. Ascent of Mount Egmont, December, 1840, by Dr. Dieffenbach. 
" However, we at length reached the summit, and found that it consisted of 
a field of snow about a square mile in extent. A most extensive view 
opened before us, and our eye followed the line of coast towards Kawia and 
Waikato." (Travels in New Zealand, by Ernest Dieffenbach, M.D., 
Naturalist to the New Zealand Company, London, Murray, 1843, 

Vol. i.,pp. 156-157.) 

f\/\ ' 

bo. On June 15, 1840, the first newspaper was published in the North 
"The New Zealand Advertiser, and Bay of Islands Gazette" published 
at Kororareka. 



The purchase of the Chatham Islands by Colonel Wakefield, who 
sent the " Cuba," in July, 1840, with Mr. E. D. Hanson, an eminent pioneer 
settler (afterwards Sir E. D. Hanson, Chief Justice of South Australia), on 
board to negotiate with the natives. The Company abandoned the claim, 
the Crown lawyers having declared the purchase of the Chatham Islands 
illegal, and the Chatham Islands were declared a dependency of New 
Zealand. (J. H. Wallace's Early History of New Zealand.) 

100 A. New Zealand erected into a separate Colony: A charter for 
" erecting the Colony of New Zealand, and for erecting and establishing a 
Legislative and an Executive Council, and for granting certain powers and 
authority to the Governor for the time being of the said colony," was signed 
by the Queen, on the 16th of November, 1840. This charter, or letters 
patent defined the Colony of New Zealand to consist of the group of islands 
lying between 34deg. 30min. and 47deg. lOmin. south latitude, and 166deg. 
omin. and 179deg. east longitude; and declared that the three principal 
islands, heretofore known as the Northern, Middle, and Stewart's Island, 
should henceforth be designated and known respectively as New Ulster, 
New Munster, and New Leinster. These documents were published in the 
Colony on the 3rd May, 1841. 

100B. The birthday of the Colony: The 14th January, 1840, cannot be 
claimed as the birthday of the Colony, since on that day New Zealand 
entered into bondage as a dependency of New South Wales, and became 
subject to her laws; neither can the 21st May, 1840, the date of the 
proclamation of the Queen's sovereignty over the islands, be called her 
birthday, as the status of the colony was in no way altered by that 
proclamation. The better right seems to indicate the 16th November, 1840, 
as the true birth of the colony, when she was created an independency, the 
news whereof was proclaimed at Auckland, on the 3rd May, 1841." (Index 
to the Laws of New Zealand, fifth edition, by John Curnin, B.A., of the 
Inner Temple, Wellington, 1885, page 1. 

lOli The Legislative Council was to consist of not less than six persons, 
nominated by the Crown, and holding office during its pleasure, with power 
to make laws and ordinances for the colony, conformable to instructions 
from the Queen in Council ; the Executive Council to be composed of three 
of the principal members of the Government, to assist and advise the 
Governor, who was to be nominated by the crown. The first meeting of the 
Council was held at Auckland, in May, 1841. 

102. Captain Hobsou was appointed Governor and Commander-in-Chief 
of the new colony, and instructions were issued under the Eoyal sign manual, 



19 

dated the 5th of December, 1840, prescribing his powers and duties, and 
those of the Legislative Council. 

103, A Civil List was drawn up, fixing the salary of the Governor, Chief 
Justice, Colonial Secretary, Surveyor-General, Collector of Customs, 
Attorney -General, Protector of Aborigines, and the expenses attending 
their several departments. An annual grant was voted by the British 
Parliament, in addition to the duties levied in New Zealand, to defray the 
expenses of the Government. (See Colonial Gazettes and Parliamentary 
Papers.) 

104. A Charter was issued to the New Zealand Company, on the 12th 
February, 1841, after considerable negotiations with the British Government. 

1 05i Soon after the foundation of the New Zealand Company's first and 
principal settlement at Port Nicholson (Wellington), a settlement was formed 
atWauganui, 1840-1. 

106. Formation of New Plymouth settlement : In the month of February, 
1840, an Association was formed in the West of England, termed the " New 
Plymouth Company," founded by colonists chiefly from the West of England. 
The pioneer vessel, "William Bryan," left Plymouth, 19th November, 
1840, arrived at New Plymouth, March 28, 1841. On the departure from 
England of the "William Bryan," a grand fete was given by the Plymouth 
Company, at the Royal Assembly Eooms, Plymouth, Friday, October 30, 
1840, the Earl of Devon in the chair. A large assembly of the nobility and 
gentry were present; numerous speeches were made, Mr. E. G. Wakefield 
delivering an interesting address. (See J. H. Wallace's Early History of 
New Zealand.) 

107. Interest in England taken in colonizing operations : A dinner was 

'ven by the Directors of the New Zealand Company to Lord John Russell, 
er Majesty's principal Secretary of State for the Colonies, and about two 
hundred distinguished guests and friends invited to meet his Lordship at 
the London Tavern, Saturday, February 13, 1841 ; and from its intrinsic 
nature and antecedent circumstances, excited unusual interest in the city of 
London. (See J. H. Wallace's Early History of New Zealand.) 

108. New Zealand created an independent diocese: On the separation of 
the colony from that of New South Wales, an application was made to the 
Imperial Government to constitute the Islands of New Zealand an indepen- 
dent diocese, and on the 17th October, 1841, Dr. George Augustus Selwyn, 
Fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge, was appointed the first Bishop of 
New Zealand, and with a suite of clergymen sailed for his diocese by way of 
Sydney, in the end of 1841, arriving at Auckland, on the 29th May, 1842. 
He appointed clergymen to reside at Wellington, Nelson, and New Plymouth; 
but afterwards devoted his attention principally to the foundation of a 
college near the missionary establishment in the north, and to superintending 
the Church Missionaries in the conversion of the large native population in 
that part of the colony. 

109. Captain Liardet, a distinguished officer of the British Royal 
Navy, was appointed the agent of the New Plymouth Company. He sailed 
for New Zealand, in the barque " Whitby,,' 347 tons, Captain Lacy, on the 
27 April, 1841, arrived at Wellington, September 18, 1841, and proceeded to 
New Plymouth, where he met with a gun accident, which deprived 
him of his sight, November, 1841 ; having partially recovered, he sailed for 
England, by way of Sydney, February, 1842, 



20 

110. The Manakau Company formed: Late in the year 1841, twenty- 
seven settlers from Great Britain arrived in the Manakau harbour. These 
colonists were sent out by a Scotch Colonization Company, which claimed 
19,000 acres of land, purchased from the natives in 1835, by a Mr. Mitchell, 
and re-sold in 1839 to Major Campbell, Mr. Roy, and Captain Symonds. 
The settlers on disembarkation, squatted on the ground, but as the company 
could not establish their right of purchase, no more emigrants were sent 
out, and the settlement never took root. Those already in the Colony were 

given lands in other localities, and after twelve years' correspondence the 
olonial Government reported that the Manukau Company were only 
entitled to 1,900 acres of land. 

111. The next and fourth settlement formed by the New Zealand 
Company was Nelson, in Blind Bay. The preliminary expedition sailed 
from London in 1841, consisted of two vessels, the " Whitby," and "Will 
Watch," under the leadership of Captain Arthur Wakefield, a distinguished 
officer in the Royal Navy, who was appointed resident agent. The 
" Whitby " and '" Will Watch " called at Wellington, remained there a short 
time negotiating with Captain Hobson as to the site to be fixed for the 
settlement, and sailed for Nelson, October 2, 1841. After cruising through 
Cook's Strait the "Whitby," " Will Watch," and "Arrow" anchored in 
the Waikatu (Nelson) in Blind Bay, which was finally fixed upon for the 
Nelson settlement. 

112. Maketu, a native, murdered Mrs. Roberton, her man servant, and her 
family, November 20, 1841, at the Bay of Islands. He confessed his crime, 
and was executed at Auckland. 

113. Bishop Selwyn arrived at Port Nicholson from Auckland, August 
12, 1842. His Lordship in replying to an address from the inhabitants, 
adverted ' ' to the country now undergoing the great change of colonization, and 
remarked that under Divine aid, and the exertions of the British people, New 
Zealand would one day be the brightest gem in Britain's crown, her noblest effort 
at colonization." 

11 4-. Death of the first Governor of New Zealand : Governor Hobson 
died of paralysis, at Auckland, 10th September, 1842. His body lies in the 
cemetery at Auckland, and in St. Paul's Church, of that city, a marble slab 
commemorates in English and Maori, that he was a native of Ireland. On 
the coffin was engraved on a handsome plate, ' ' Beneath lie the remains of 
WILLIAM HOBSON, ESQ., a Captain in H.M. Royal Navy, and first Governor of 
New Zealand, who departed this life on the 10th September, 1842, aged 
49 years." 

115. The Colonial Secretary (Willoughby Shortland) assumed the office 
of Acting Governor, but without ceasing to be Colonial Secretary for the time 
being, issued a proclamation recapitulating the charter for assumption of the 
office of Governor. 

116. Early in November, 1842, emigrants arrived at Auckland, the 
"Duchess of Argyle," and "Jane Gifford," containing 561 emigrants. 
These were the first vessels that had come from England direct to the north, 
except the emigrants who arrived at Manukau. 

117. At this period the northern settlers, who were daily increasing in 
population from Sydney and Van Dieman's Land, were actively engaged in 
clearing bush land for cultivation, and in trading with a numerous native 
population. The New Zealand Company's settlers were also actively 



21 

engaged clearing and cultivating, and settling the country by a large influx 
of population direct from Great Britain, and as the country was quite 
unknown to the pioneers, numerous enterprising expeditions of discovery 
for suitable country to locate the settlers, arriving under the auspices of the 
colonizing body the New Zealand Company were continually carried 
out. (See J. H. Wallace's Early History of New Zealand.) The New 
Zealand Company's principal surveyor, Captain W. M. Smith, E.A., 
unfortunately lost his maps, books, journals, and valuable instruments on a 
return voyage of discovery to the Middle Island, November, 1842.) E. J. 
Wakefield's Adventures in New Zealand, Vol. 2, p. 311. 

118. In the beginning of 1843, the turbulent chiefs, Eangihaeta and Te 
Rauparaha, gave great uneasiness to the settlers by repeated attempts to 
prevent peaceable settlement. The important question of what position the 
settlers stood in with regard to Bangihaeta, was set at rest by the Chief 
Justice, William Martin, Esq. (afterwards Sir William Martin), refusing to 
issue a warrant against the rebel chief. (See the decision of HIH Honor in J. 
H. Wallace's Early History of New Zealand.) 

119. Captain Fitzroy,R.N. appointed Governor: Mr.WilloughbyShortland, 
who administered the Government after the death of Captain Hobson, was 
superseded by Captain Robert Fitzroy, R.N., who was appointed Governor. 
This officer's connection with the colony arose from his having visited the 
Bay of Islands in Her Majesty's surveying ship " Beagle," and from having 
given evidence in 1838, regarding New Zealand, before the Committee of 
the House of Lords. 

120. During the month of March, 4, 5, and 6, 1843, a brilliant comet 
appeared in the south-west corner of the heavens, and was visible till about 
the 17th April, 1843. The comet's tail, as seen from Wanganui, measured 
45deg. A comet of this vast magnitude had not appeared, it was generally 
stated, since that of 1680. Those who were versed in astronomy asserted 
that it was the most brilliant comet that had been seen in ancient or modern 
times. The Maoris hailed it as an evil omen and commenced howling 
very pathetically. 

121 1 1843, June 18. The Wairau massacre : News arrived in Wellington 
by the Government brig " Victoria," from Cloudy Bay, of the massacre, at 
the Wairau, of Captain Arthur Wakefield, R.N., the leader of the Nelson 
colonists, and twenty-one of the Nelson settlers. Great consternation 
prevailed at Nelson, when the result of the expedition to the Wairau was 
made known, and considerable disorganization ensued among all classes. 
Rauparaha and Rangihaeta, the instigators of the massacre, when the affair 
was over crossed Cook's Strait in their canoes, dreading the vengeance of 
the settlers. (The full details of this sad calamity will oe found in J. H. 
Wallace's Early History of New Zealand.) 

122. Effect of the Wairau conflict in Europe: The settlers demanded 
military protection, a settlement of land claims, and an independent 
government for Cook's Strait. " The Wairau conflict attracted the attention 
of Europe, and created interest in the minds of men who never thought 
about the colonies. It completely stopped emigration to New Zealand, called 
forth the sympathy of people in different parts of Great Britain, and at 
Paris a proposition was mude to commence a subscription to enable the 
unfortunate settlers to return home. (Galignanis' Messenger, 3rd April, 1844. 

123. 1843, July. Depressed state of the Colony: The Colony at this 
period was in a very depressed state. The addresses from all parts breathed 



22 

a spirit of depression, mingled withj alarm at the.tone and manner of the 
natives in regard to the land claims. In the Kororareka address it is stated 
" the country has become, beyond example, one general scene of anxiety, 
distress, and ruin, so that property has lost its value, personal security has 
been at stake, and happiness has almost ceased to exist." The Cook's Strait 
settlers (Spectator, No. 262, July 12, 1843): "The deplorable condition in 
which this settlement is (Port Nicholson) in the fourth year of its existence, 
compared with what was expected to have been its state by this time, by 
those who founded it, is a fact to which it is impossible to shut our eyes." 
(J. H. Wallace's Early History of New Zealand.) 

124. In December, 1843, Captain Robert Fitzroy, R.N., arrived at 
Auckland, and found the local Government without money or credit, and in 
debt more than one year's revenue. There were no means of paying any 
salaries, however long in arrear ; scarcely could the most pressing and 
ordinary payments on account of the Colonial Government be made. 
Various local laws, urgently required on account of frequent disputes which 
occurred between settlers and natives, had been too long deferred, the 
Legislative Council not having been assembled during Mr. Shorthand's 
administration of the Government, or for nearly a year previous to Captain 
Hobson's death, during which long interval no measure had even been 
prepared by the law officers. The complimentary addresses to the new 
Governor from the various settlements, all teemed with expressions of distress 
and dissatisfaction. (J. H. Wallace's Early History of New Zealand.) 

125i Governor Fitzroy visits Wellington and Nelson : Captain Fitzroy 
left Auckland, January 18, 1844, in H.M.S. " North Star," Captain Sir 
Everard Home, Bart., and arrived at Wellington, January 27th. From 
Wellington, Captain Fitzroy proceeded to Nelson to inquire into the Wairau 
conflict. Both at Wellington and Nelson he gave great offence to the 
inhabitants, particularly at Nelson, were he publicly rebuked the Magistrates 
who signed the warrant for Eauparaha and Bangihaeta's arrest, and stated 
that the warrant which led to the massacre was informal. This rebuke, 
coming from so high a functionary, at a time when the colonists were 
mourning the death of their fellow-settlers, produced a deep sensation, and 
several Magistrates immediately resigned their commissions. (See Parl. 
Papers, E. J. Wakefield's Adventures in New Zealand, Fifteenth Beport of 
New Zealand Company, the Local Papers, and J. H. Wallace's Early History 
of New Zealand.) 

126. Governor Fitzroy's Land Proclamation: In March, 1844, the 
Governor, with a view to conciliate the natives, consented to waive the 
Queen's right of pre-emption over certain portions of the conntry in the 
neighbourhood of Auckland, and issued a proclamation permitting private 
individuals to purchase direct from the natives on payment of ten shillings 
an acre to the Crown, and subsequently, to further allay their dissatisfaction, 
on the payment of one penny an acre. (Government Gazette, October, 
1844.) These arrangements, which were in direct opposition to Acts of 
Parliament, which forbade the waste lands of the Crown in the Colony being 
alienated at a lower price than twenty shillings an acre, although tacitly 
assented to in the first place by the Imperial Government, for fear of alien- 
ating the natives at the then critical state of the colony, were afterwards 
disallowed. 

127. The Land Question, 1844: The settlement of all questions connected 
with the title to land in New Zealand had been one continued source of 
anxiety from the foundation of the Colony. 



23 

128. The British. Government sent out William Spain, Esq., the first 
Land Commissioner, who arrived 8th December, 1841, in the brig "Antilla," 
having been detained on his passage by the unfortunate loss of the " Prince 
Rupert," September, 1841, at the Cape of Good Hope. Mr. Spain opened 
courts in various parts of the colony, investigated, and reported upon claims, 
and issued awards, some of which were reversed by Governor Fitzroy. 

129! "After the Wairau Massacre, out settlers in their solitude, began to 
forbode evil, and it was generally admitted that the moral influence period 
was ended, and the days of physical force were at hand. Hitherto the New 
Zealanders were invariably defendants in disputes with settlers ; now they 
became the domineering race, and for the sake of peace several concessions 
were made by the Governor." (Thomson, Vol. 2, p. 87.) 

130i The Waikato Tribes gave a great feast at Eemuera, close to 
Auckland, on a fern plain between Mounts Hobson and St. John, on the 
llth May, 1844. Governor Fitzroy visited the feast by invitation. At this 
banquet there were given away to the guests 11,000 baskets of potatoes, 
9,000 sharks, 100 full grown pigs, 1,000 blankets, and large quantities of 
wheat, rice, sugar, and tobacco. At a given signal sixteen hundred men, 
armed with guns and tomahawks, danced the war dance. This was a 
display of physical force which caused great uneasiness to the Governor, and 
to the inhabitants of Auckland. 

131. About this time also, another cause of anxiety affording unmistake- 
able indications of the growing disaffection of the natives towards the 
Government, as well as towards the settlers generally, presented itself. The 
flagstaff on the hill above Kororareka (Russell), began to be talked of as a 
signal of the assumption of authority in New Zealand by the British 
Government. Meetings began to be held, at which a native named John 
Heke (Hone Heke), who afterwards made himself notorious in the wars in 
the North, took a prominent part, the subject of discussion being the 
cutting down of the flagstaff. (J. H. Wallace's Early History of New 
Zealand.) 

132. The flagstaff cut down: In the month of August, 1844, Heke 
assembled a party of armed men, and proceeded to Kororareka, where he 
spent Saturday and Sunday in alarming the inhabitants, and early on 
Monday morning mounted the hill and cut down the flagstaff. 

133. The Governor applied to New South Wales for troops : Ou intelli- 
gence of Heke' s proceedings being received at Auckland by Governor 
Fitzroy, he immediately made application to the Government of New South 
Wales for troops, and sent thirty men from the small detachment stationed 
at the capital, to Russell, with directions to the Police Magistrate to replace 
the flagstaff, and to persevere in temperate and conciliatory measures until 
self defence should render hostility unavoidable. 

134. The Governor, after the troops arrived from Sydney, visited the 
district and explained to the natives, the intention of the British Government, 
and assured them that he had no desire to take any violent means to vindicate 
the honour of the Crown, but should demand their guns to be given up, as 
an acknowledgement of the insult. Upon this some of the chiefs delivered 
up their guns, but Heke, however, stood aloof, and would not take part in 
the proceedings. 

135. At this time Wanganui was visited by a war party consisting 
of Waikato, Taupo, and Rotorua natives. H.M.S. " Hazard," Captain 



24 

Robertson, sailed for Wanganui to check the natives in their hostile 
intentions. (See J. H. Wallace's Early History of New Zealand.) 

100. Hostilities commenced and Kororareka destroyed: The flagstaff at 
the Bay of Islands was cut down a second and a third time by Heke, who 
defied the Governor and his soldiers. On the 6th March a collision took 
place between the natives and the " Hazard's" pinnace. Hostilities began 
by an attack of a plundering party upon the house of a settler. On the 
llth March, John Heke and a party of natives got possession of the flagstaff, 
which was the key to the position, and afterwards made an attack on the 
town (Kororareka) which resulted in its destruction, with the loss of many 
lives. During the attack, the magazine in the town exploded and wounded 
a number of persons, besides causing the destruction of much valuable 
property, and the loss of all the ammunition. The town had ultimately to 
be evacuated, and the settlers were compelled to seek refuge in Auckland. 
(Parliamentary Papers, No. 517, dated 15th July, 1845, Church in the 
Colonies, No. 12, Christianity among the New Zealanders, by the Eight 
Rev. W. Williams, D.C.L., Bishop of Waipu, London, 1867, pp. 304 to 308, 
the Auckland Papers, and J. H. Wallace's Early History of New Zealand.) 

137. Governor Fitzroy was now convinced that war alone could bring 
about peace. When the news of the destruction of Kororareka reached the 
New Zealand Company's settlements in Cook's Strait, fortifications were 
commenced, a militia was formed, and every precaution taken against a 
general rising of the natives which was greatly feared. Native allies rallied 
round the Government, and checked John Heke, or Hone Heke Poki's, 
insatiable ambition and thirst for distinction, which he was not able to conceal 
from the watchful eyes of his countrymen. 

138. The united forces of the friendly chiefs pressed hard upon the rebels, 
and were of the most essential service, for they alone arrested Heke in the 
devastating career he had planned, and gave him ample employment in 
providing for his own safety, until the regular force of the Colony was 
increased by reinforcements from New South Wales, and even after the 
arrival of the troops, their aid and co-operation were indispensable. 

139- When the British troops reached the scene of operations, at the Bay 
of Islands, in the month of May, 1845, these friendly chiefs joined them 
with their followers. They had at one time 900 men in the field, and the 
average number of their followers under arms throughout the disturbances 
in the North, may be estimated at between three and four hundred men. 
(J. H. Wallace's Early History of New Zealand gives a detailed account of 
these events in chronological order.) 

140. The British troops, under Colonel Despard, of the 99th, an old 
soldier, who had seen service early in the century, in the East Indies, were 
repulsed, July 1, 1845, at storming of Oheawai, Bay of Islands, 34 killed, 
and 66 wounded. (See Colonel Despard's despatches, and other official 
public documents, and narratives of events of Heke's war in J. H. Wallace's 
Early History of New Zealand and numerous other publications.) 

141. Not only at the Bay of Islands, and in the North, were the natives 
in open rebellion against the Government. At New Plymouth, Wanganui, 
Nelson, and Wellington, the natives were exceedingly troublesome and much 
excited, and it was quite clear that an insurrection smouldered in the South. 
A great bone of contention was the occupation of the Hutt Valley, in the 
neighbourhood of Wellington, by hostile natives, and their refusal to permit 
the settlers to enjoy that peaceable possession which the settlers had retained 



26 

since the foundation of the colony, and notwithstanding that the alleged 
cause of opposition had already been adjusted by Governor Fitzroy. 

142. Debate in the House of Commons on New Zealand affairs : The 
unsatisfactory state of affairs in New Zealand was discussed in the House 
of Commons ; Petitions were presented, setting forth grievances. The 
English public despaired of the colony, and in June, 1845, the House of 
Commons was occupied in discussing the state of New Zealand. (Eeport of 
this debate published by Murray, London.) A petition from the Cook's 
Strait settlers attracted much attention at this time in England. It was 
drawn up by Mr. Domett, and detailed in eloquent language the miserable 
condition of the colonists and Captain Fitzroy's incompetency for his office. 
(See J. H. Wallace's Early History of New Zealand.) 

143. Governor Fitzroy recalled : On the 30th April, 1845, Lord Stanley 
signified to Governor Fitzroy Her Majesty's disallowance of his debenture 
ordinance. A despatch bearing the same date, conveyed to the Governor, 
his recall for reasons which were stated at considerable length by Lord 
Stanley, in a communication dated May 14th, 1845. The general causes 
assigned were "the defects in circumspection, firmness, and punctuality," 
which had occurred during his administration, and the repeated infringement 
of his instructions. The more specific grounds of complaint were, the want 
of punctuality in acquainting Her Majesty's Ministers with his proceedings, 
the making paper money a legal tender, permitting the natives to sell land 
without a concurrent fee to the Government, the temporary abolition of the 
customs duties, and other measures equally objectionable. 

144. The gentleman appointed in the place of Captain Fitzroy was 
Captain Grey, the Governor of South Australia (became Sir George Grey, 
K.C.B., in 1848). The new Governor arrived in Auckland on the 14th 
November, 1845, and on the 18th was duly installed. 

145. Immediately after his installation, the new Governor announced 
the disallowance by Her Majesty's Government of several of Captain 
Fitzroy's Acts, as transactions of considerable magnitude were continually 
taking place, the parties concerned in which were necessarily acting under a 
local misapprehension of the real state of affairs. 

146. Native disturbances: While these measures were taking place in 
Auckland, a large number of natives were in arms against the Government 
in the Bay of Islands, under the leadership of Heke and Kawiti. Captain 
Grey then proceeded to the Bay of Islands, where he found 700 trained 
soldiers entrenching themselves ; and learned that the disaffected natives 
consisted of two classes those who were in active hostility, and those who 
were neutral. He endeavoured to put an end to this state of things, by 
stating that he would consider those who were not for us as against us ; and 
he informed the allies that the Queen had instructed him to fulfil most 
scrupulously the treaty of Waitangi. He gave Heke and Kawiti a fixed 
time to decide on peace or war, and then returned to Auckland. 

147. Military operations renewed: The natives did not return satisfactory 
replies to the communications made to them, and military operations were 
recommenced. Having made arrangements, the Governor proceeded to the 
Bay of Islands, to join the troops who were making active preparations 
against the rebels under Heke and Kawiti, who were finally shut up after 
some skirmishing, in a pah belonging to the latter chief at Ruapekapeka. 

148. Defeat of the natives : On the llth January, 1846, the troops and 
naval forces under Colonel Deepard, assisted by the native allies, attacked 



26 

the stronghold Euapekapeka, and carried the place by assault, after three 
hour's hard fighting, with a loss of twelve killed and twenty-nine wounded, 
the enemy being defeated and dispersed in different directions. 

149. The result of the fall of Euapekapeka was the final submission of 
all the rebels. The Governor gave Heke and Kawiti, and all who had been 
engaged an unconditional pardon. Martial law was removed from the 
northern district ; 200 soldiers were left to garrison the Bay of Islands, and 
the remainder of the force returned to Auckland. Thus ended the war in 
the North, which commenced in July, 1844, and terminated in January, 1846. 

150. The Hutt campaign : Early in 1846, seventeen Hutt settlers were 
plundered by the natives, to avenge which Colonel Hulme marched 300 
soldiers up the Hutt. The natives on their approach, withdrew to a pah in 
the neighbouring hills, and, as the enemy's position was unassailable 
without heavy loss, 200 soldiers were left in the valley for protection. 
(J. H. Wallace's Early History of New Zealand.) 

1 51 Several murders had been committed by the natives. The murderers 
were sheltered by Eangihaeta, who refused to give them up, and began to 
evince open hostility to the Government. In the meantime the Governor 
arrived in Wellington from the North, for the purpose of suppressing the 
disturbances. 

152. Native attack at the Hutt : On the 16th May, 1846, fifty soldiers of 
the 58th Eegiment, under Lieutenant Page, stationed at Boulcott's farm in 
the valley of the Hutt, were surprised an hour before daylight by seventy 
natives under Mamaku, and six soldiers were slain and four wounded. 

153i This successful affair emboldened the enemy, and on the 16th June, 
1846, forty soldiers of the 99th Eegiment, under Captain Eead, were 
attacked while reconnoitering in the Hutt, when two men were killed, and 
one officer and five men wounded. Another settler was murdered, named 
Eush, for cultivating disputed lands. (J. H. Wallace's Early History of 
New Zealand.) 

154. The alarm produced by these events was aggravated by rumours of 
intended attacks ; out settlers fled to Wellington, and those who remained on 
their lands took up arms and erected stockades. In every affair which had 
yet occurred the insurgents were the assailants, and more soldiers were 
slain than natives ; the enemy confident in their strength despised them, 
and the leading rebel chief Eangihaeta, was a constant dread. 

155. Te Eauparaha suspected by Governor Grey: Te Eauparaha, a 
powerful chief of the Ngatitoa tribe, was outwardly our ally, professing the 
wannest friendship for the Europeans ; he and his tribe were, however, 
secretly assisting Eangihaeta. The Governor, on learning tbe deceitful 
manner in which Eauparaha was acting, determined to secure him by 
stratagem, and measures were taken to carry out the plan, which resulted in 
the capture of Te Eauparaha, Te Kanae, and Hohepa Tamihengia, together 
with two inferior chiefs, at Porirua, July 23, 1846, the whole of whom were 
conveyed on board a ship of war, and detained as prisoners. (Full details, 
in chronological order, of this oventf ul period will be found in J. H. Wallace's 
Early History of New Zealand.) 

156. The importance of the capture of Te Eauparaha: " It is difficult to 
convey an accurate idea of the value of the man the Governor had now in 
custody. He was the most celebrated living warrior in the country, the 
leader of the Wairau conflict, and the man. whom three years before all 



27 

desired, but none dared to seize. His capture was not made in the hour of 
victory, but after British soldiers had been worsted, settlers murdered, and 
the spirit of our allies depressed." 

157. Rangihaeta defeated: Shortly after Rauparaha's capture, Eangihaeta 
abandoned his pah at Pahatanui, and accompanied by a considerable number 
of his followers, whose numbers were also augmented by a reinforcement of 
disaffected natives from the neighbourhood of Wangauui, took up a position 
at the head of the Horokiwi Valley, from whence they were finally dislodged 
by the British forces in conjunction with friendly natives, who, after 
pursuing them from place to place, terminated the proceedings by totally 
dispersing the enemy. 

158. The end of the Southern campaign : The enemy were now routed ; 
Kauparaha, their thinking man, was a prisoner ; Rangihaeta, their fighting 
warrior, a fugitive : Te Heu BLeu, the only chief of note who refused to 
acknowledge the Queen's authority, and who sheltered the enemy in his 
inaccessible dominions around Taupo, was at this critical juncture buried 
alive with fifty-four followers, by an immense land slip. 

159. Epuni a valuable and trustworthy ally : Epuni, the Ngatiawa chief, 
residing at Petoue, during the skirmishes of 1846, rendered valuable 
assistance to the Government, as well by honest and judicious advice, as by 
active and courageous co-operation in the field. Epuni was celebrated among 
the colonists as having been a very rare instance of a native stedfastly 
adhering to a bargain respecting land. 

160. Energetic measures of the Governor: Governor Grey began his 
career by energetic measures for enforcing British law, and for conquering 
the rebellious natives throughout the colony. He also displayed increasing 
activity in visiting the different settlements, and great anxiety to remedy in 
some measure the evils which had accumulated under the mismanagement 
of his predecessors. 

161. Natives employed in making roads : Governor Grey soon after his 
arrival in the colony commenced the formation of roads by native labourers, 
and at Auckland and Wellington, large bodies of friendly and hostile New 
Zealanders were employed in wielding picks and spades, which diverted their 
attention from warlike pursuits. These labourers working with the soldiers 
learned from them several useful mechanical arts. 

162. The turbulent chief Rangihaeta and his followers were dis- 
persed but not subdued, and sojourning among the Wauganui and Taupo 
tribes they fanned the smouldering sparks of discontent, and at the end 
of 1846, and the beginning of 1847, several brutal murders were perpetrated, 
and the settlers in the Wanganui and Manawatu districts were threatened 
and plundered. (J. H. Wallace's Early History of New Zealand.) 

163. On the 19th May, 1847, the natives attacked the settlement of 
Wangauui. The inhabitants retreated to several fortified houses in the rear 
of the military position, and for five hours the enemy kept up a fire on the 
stockades from the shelter of the deserted town houses. From the stockades 
and a gunboat on the river, a constant fire of shot and shell was maintained, 
without dislodging the enemy ; and in the night the latter plundered the 
town, stole and killed cattle, and decamped. (J. H. Wallace's Early 
History of New Zealand.) 

164 1 . Governor Grey at Wanganui : After this the natives resumed their 
ordinary guerilla style of warfare, stealing cattle and sheep, and burning 
down the dwellings vacated by the out- Bottlers, until, at the expiration of 



about a fortnight, Governor Grey arrived from Auckland, with ships of war, 
and reinforcements both military and naval, and on the 10th July, 1847, 
another engagement took place in which the loss on the side of the Europeans 
was two killed and twelve wounded, that of the natives was supposed to be 
considerably more. 

Ibu. After several conflicts, hostilities ceased, but peace was not 
proclaimed, as the natives would not humiliate themselves to ask directly 
for it. At the end of the year 1847, they wrote to the Governor begging 
for peace. (Full details of these events are given in J. H. Wallace's Early 
History of New Zealand.) 

166. Peace proclaimed : On the 21st February, 1848, the principal chiefs 
met His Excellency Governor Grey, at Wanganui, and in the presence of 
Major- General Pitt, commanding the troops in New Zealand, peace was 
ratified, and a general pardon granted. 

167. The charter of 1846: The necessity of a fundamental change in the 
system of government adopted by the charter of 1840 having become 
apparent, an Act of Parliament (9 and 10 Vic. C. 184, sec. 11) was passed by 

, the Imperial Legislature for the better government of New Zealand, under 
which a charter was issued for the introduction of a new constitution by 
which the colonists should enjoy the principles of representative institutions. 

168. Mr. Eyre appointed Lieutenant-Governor : Governor Grey was 
appointed Governor-in-Chief, and the appointment of Lieutenant-Governor 
for New Munster was conferred upon Edward John Eyre, Esq., a gentleman, 
who like Governor Grey, had won considerable renown as an Australian 
explorer, and was known to take a deep interest in the welfare of the 
aboriginal races. 

169. The provinces of New Ulster and New Munster : By the charter of 
1846, until further orders should be given, the three Islands of New Zealand 
were to be formed into two provinces, to be called "New Ulster," and "New 
Munster." The former to comprise the whole of the Upper or Northern 
Island, except such parts adjacent to Cook's Strait (Wellington, Wanganui, 
&c.) as the Governor-in-Chief might exclude ; the parts excepted, together 
with the Middle and Southern Islands, to constitute New Munster. Each 
Province was to have an Executive Council (composed of the Colonial 
Secretary, Attorney-General, Colonial Treasurer, Officer in command of the 
troops, and such other persons as might be deemed necessary) to aid with their 
advice the administration of the Government. 

170. The charter suspended for five years : The time for promulgating 
and carrying out the charter was left to Governor Grey, who availed 
himself of the discretionary power granted him by delaying its introduction, 
and lost no time iu representing to the Government his reasons for doing so. 
"Her Majesty's Ministers acknowledged the justness of Governor Grey's 
objections to the charter, and with much regret invoked Parliament to 
suspend for five years that part of the constitution which gave representative 
bodies the powers of general legislation." (Thomson, v. 2, p. 161.) 

Ill i " On the institution of a civil order of the Bath, in 1848, Captain 
George Grey was made a Knight- Commander, and when invested with the 
star of the Order at Auckland, Walker Nene, and Te Puni (Epuni) were the 
chosen esquires of the new-made Knight. Sir George Grey deserved both 
the civil and military decorations ; for he accompanied the soldiers in all 
their expeditions against the natives (Parliamentary Papers) ; he virtually 
commanded the troops, and was justly charged with carrying the spirit of 



29 

peace into the councils of war : an honourable accusation, and a wise policy 
in conflicts between trained soldiers and savages." (Thomson, Vol. 2, 
p. 148, see also J. H. Wallace's Early History of New Zealand.) 

172. The formation of the Otago settlement: As far back as the year 
1843, a settlement had been projected by an Association of the lay members 
of the Free Church of Scotland to be founded in New Zealand under the 
auspices of the New Zealand Company. In 1X44, an exploring party from 
Nelson selected Otago as a site for it ; and an association co-operating 
with the New Zealand Company, purchased at this place, 400,000 acres 
of land. Colonial disturbances delayed the scheme. In November, 
1847, the first ships of immigrants sailed from Greenock for Otago. The 
" John "Wickliffe " was the first to reach Port Chalmers, the " Philip Lang" 
the second, on the 22nd March, and loth April, 1848. 

173. Captain Cargill leader of the Scotch colonists : The " Association of 
Lay Members of the Free Church of Scotland, for promoting the settlement 
of Otago," selected as the leader of the colonists Captain William Cargill, 
of the 74th Regiment, an old soldier of the Peninsular, and a descendant 
of the celebrated Donald Cargill, arrived in the " John Wickliffe," 
March 22, 1848. 

174. The Pensioner's settlement, Auckland : The Governor established a 
military colony of pensioners at Onehunga, and Tamaki. The New 
Zealand Fencibles were stationed in four settlements from five to fourteen 
miles round Auckland. " The first detachment of this military colony 
arrived in October, 1847, and in a few months the Fencibles mustered five 
hundred men, and with their wives and children they numbered two 
thousand souls." (Thomson, v. 2, p. 166.) 

175- The migration of the Ngatiawa : In 1848, William King, the 
Ngatiawa chief, with six hundred followers, migrated from Waikanae and 
Otaki, and took possession of the south bank of the Waitara river, ten 
miles from the town of New Plymouth. They grew rich ; in 1854, they 
owned 150 horses, 300 head of cattle, 40 carts, 35 ploughs, 20 pairs of 
harrows, 3 winnowing machines, and ten wooden houses. They began to 
place a high value upon their land. The produce of the soil met all their 
wants, so they needed not to sell territory. (The Rev. Jas. Buller's Forty 
Years in New Zealand, pp. 388, 389.) 

176. The foundation of the Church of England settlement : The "Asso- 
ciation for founding the settlement of Canterbury, New Zealand." The 
original plan of the Canterbury settlement was made in 1843, and Governor 
Fitzroy selected the Wairarapa Valley as a site for it ; for four years the 
Colonial war laid the scheme at rest ; it was revived in 1847. The idea of 
placing the settlement at Wairarapa was abandoned in 1848, and Captain 
Thomas (one of the original Port Nicholson settlers) was entrusted with the 
selection of the locality ; he fixed upon Port Cooper, with the concurrence 
of His Excellency Sir George Grey and the Bishop of New Zealand. 

178 A. Edward Jerningham Wakefield, son of Edward Gibbon Waketield, 
at this period published "The Hand Book of New Zealand," consisting of 
the " most recent information," compiled for the use of intending colonists, 
London, Parker, 1848. This Hand Book is full of valuable information 
intended for the Canterbury settlers. It also furnishes a considerable amount 
of historical information, respecting the proceedings of the New Zealand 
Company and Canterbury Association. 



30 

177. Death of Colonel William Wakefield : Colonel William Wakefield, 
the leader of British colonization in New Zealand, and principal agent of 
the New Zealand Company, died of apoplexy, at his residence in Wellington, 
September 19, 1848, in his forty-seventh year. (See J. H. Wallace's Early 
History of New Zealand.) 

178. Earthquakes of 1848: On the 17th October, 1848, the districts of 
Wellington, Nelson, Wanganui, and the neighbourhood of Cook's Strait, 
and other parts of the North and South Islands, were visited by a severe 
earthquake. The earthquake was supposed to be confined to a space of 
upwards of three hundred miles, or between Bank's Peninsula and White 
Island. Masses of bitumen were washed on shore along the west coast of 
the North Island after the earthquake. At Wellington, property was 
destroyed to the amount of 14,000. (See J. H. Wallace's Early History of 
New Zealand for a narrative of events.) 

179. The discovery of gold at California, 1848 : When the settlers were 
thinking that the earthquakes would entirely stop immigration, news 
arrived of the discovery of gold in California. Discontent, and a desire to 
acquire wealth more rapidly thau by the usual modes of industry, suddenly 
seized the community like an epidemic ; and nearly a thousand able-bodied 
settlers, and several ships laden with sawn timber, potatoes, and wooden 
houses, hastily left New Zealand for San Francisco. 

180. The introduction of convicts resented: At this period, 1848, when 
everything was depressed, a letter was received from the Secretary of State, 
directing the Governor to ascertain whether the colonists would be disposed 
to receive "exiles with tickets of leave." Both Europeans and natives 
opposed the proposition. The Governor, in a despatch, 8th May, 1849, 
forcibly stated the evils that would ensue from the introduction of convicts, 
whereupon Ear) Grey declared in a despatch, 26th November, 1849, "that 
Her Majesty would not be advised to send any convicts to New Zealand. 

181. St. John's College, Auckland: The Bishop of New Zealand 
entertained a large party at St. John's College, upon the opening of the 
hall which was said to be the most magnificent apartment in the colony 
July, 1849. His Excellency the Governor-iii-Chief and Lady Grey, with 
upwards of a hundred guests, partook of His Lordship's hospitality, in the 
shape of an excellent dinner, which was enlivened by various musical 
performances of collegians. 

182. At this period, 1848-9, the preparation of the Phormium Tenax 
(New Zealand flax) as an article of export, was extensively engaging the 
attention of the colonists North and South. 

183. Death of the old warrior Te Rauparaha : Te Eauparaha died at 
Otaki, November 27, 1849, was buried December 3rd. Rauparaha's son 
Tomihana laid his body in a spot selected by his old companion-in-arms 
Eangihaeta, in front of the Otaki Church. (See the History of the Life 
and Times of Te Rauparaha, by W. T. L. Travers, F.L.S., Wellington, 1872.) 

184. Steam communication: A meetiug was held in London, September 
27, 1849, on the subject of local steam communication in New Zealand. 

184A. Origin of steam navigation: "Hero of Alexandria," in his 

'Pneumatics," describes various methods of employing steam as a power ; 

and to him is ascribed the -<Eolopile, which although a toy, possesses the 

properties of the steam engine, he flourished about 284, B.C. Roger 



31 

Bacon appears to have foreseen the application of steam power. (Haydn's 
Dictionary of Dates, 17th edition, p. 747.) 

185. Bishop Pompalier, accompanied by a number of French and Irish 
Roman Catholic priests and Sisters of Charity, arrived at Auckland from 
Sydney, April 9, 1850, in the Belgian ship " Oceanie." 

lOD. Dr. Viard, the newly appointed Roman Catholic Bishop of 
Wellington, with several priests, sisters of charity, and other members of 
the Roman Catholic Mission, arrived in Wellington, May, 1850, in the 
barque " Clara," 360 tons, Potter, from Auckland. 

1 87. Death of the celebrated chief Heke : Heke died of consumption, 6th 
September, 1850, at Tautoroa, in the North. He told his warriors who 
accompanied his deathbed, that when he was gone, they ought to "be quiet 
for ever," and not infringe upon the rights of the Europeans in the lands 
which they had purchased. (See J. H. Wallace's Early History of New 
Zealand.) 

188. Dissolution of the New Zealand Company: Meetings of the 
proprietors of the Company had been held at New Zealand House, London. 
The directors determined on the final dissolution of the Company. The 
resolution was confirmed at the adjourned meeting held 16th July, 1850. 

188. On the surrender of the New Zealand Company's charter in 1850, a 
debt of over 268,000 was imposed on the colony, with interest after the 
rate of 3 per cent, on the said sum. The General Assembly of New Zealand 
apportioned the amount to be paid by each settlement. 

190. The settlement of Canterbury, established in 1850, was originally 
promoted entirely by members of the Church of England, and organised 
throughout upon strictly Church of England principles. It has subsequently 
passed, however, under the general management of the Colony at large. 

191. The Canterbury Association despatched their chief surveyor, Captain 
Thomas, in July, 1848. The preliminary expedition of surveyors, accompanied 
by the leader of the colonists and chief agent of the settlement, John Robert 
Godley, Esq., reached Port Cooper (now Lyttelton) in April, 1850. 

192. Arrival of the Canterbury settlers at Lyttelton. His Excel- 
lency Sir George Grey, K.C.B., and Lady Grey witnessed the founding 
of the new settlement. Three vessels with the first body of settlers, 
in number about six hundred souls, arriving after a short and pros- 
perous passage of ninety-eight days. On Monday, the 16th December, 
1850, the " Charlotte Jane," the first of the Canterbury Association's 
emigrant ships, arrived from England, followed on the same day by the 
" Randolph." The National Anthem sung, being the first public act on 
their arrival. The day following, December 17, the "Sir George Seymour" 
arrived. 

193. A leave-taking dinner was given at Gravesend, to the colonists, by 
the Canterbury Association, September, 1850, at Wate's Hotel ; Lord 
Lyttelton and a large assembly were present. (From the London Times, 
September 3rd, 1850. 

194-. Several of the Canterbury colonists attended St. Paul's Cathedral, 
on Sunday, previous to embarking. His Grace the Archbishop of Canter- 
bury preached an eminently practical sermon to the colonists. (Historic 
Times, September 5, 1850.) 



32 

195. The discovery of gold in Australia, in 1851, was the means of 
attracting a large number of New Zealand settlers, as well as natives, to the 
gold regions. 

19b. Death of His Excellency Major-General George Dean Pitt, K.H., 
Lieutenant-Governor of the province of New Ulster, at his residence, 
Princes Street, Auckland, Januarys, 1851, aged 70. He was at the time 
of his death commander of the forces in New Zealand. Entered the army 
June 4, 1805, and had served along military career. 

197. Loss of the French frigate " Alceme'ne" : The French corvette 
" Alcemene," thirty-six guns, Mons. le Compte d'Harcourt, commander, 
was wrecked on the West Coast, between the Kaipara Heads and Hokianga 
Heads, June 3, 1851 ; ten lives lost. Every kindness and attention was 
shown to the survivors. (From the New Zealander, June 18, 1851.) 

198. A Masonic festival of the New Zealand Pacific Lodge, was held at 
the Lodge rooms, Barrett's Hotel, Wellington, July 1851, on St. John's 
Day. Brother Sir George Grey, K.C.B., was present. 

199. The New Zealand Society was formed at Wellington, July 2, 1851. 
His Excellency Sir George Grey, K.C.B., the founder of the Society, elected 
the first president. Mr. Mantell (now the Hon. W. B. D. Mantell, M.L.C.) 
took an active part with Sir George Grey in the formation of the institution, 
and acted as the first hon. sec. 

200i Death of the discoverer of Stewart's Island : Captain Stewart, one 
of the oldest European inhabitants, died at Poverty Bay, in the early part of 
1852, aged 85. He was said to be the first white man who ever set foot on 
the beach of Kororareka. In the early days he was a sealer, and the 
discoverer of Stewart's Island. He acted as pilot to H.M.S. "Herald," 
Captain Nias, along the coast, in endeavouring to obtain signatures of native 
chiefs to the treaty of Waitangi. (See J. H. Wallace's Early History of 
New Zealand.) 

201. An Act giving to the colony of New Zealand a representative 
constitution passed the Houses of the Imperial Parliament, 30th June, 1852, 
in the fifteenth and sixteenth years of the reign of Her Majesty Queen 
Victoria. (15 and 16 Vic., c. 72.) 

202. The Constitution Act: Provinces established, granting a Representative 
Constitution to the colony, 15 and 16 Vic., c. 72. Sections now extant 
in force ( 1 886) : Sections 1, 32, 34-38, 44-48, 53-59, 61, 65, 71, 72, 77, 79; 
also part sections 39, 40, 41, 64, 66, and 80, and part schedule. Sections 
repealed : Sections 2 to 31, 33, 42, 43, 49 to 52, 60, 63, 67 to 69, 73, 74, 76, 78 ; 
also part sections 39, 40, 41, 64, 66, 80 and schedules. Sections obsolete : 
Sections 62, 70, 75, 81, 83. (Cumin's Index to the Laws of New Zealand, 
5th edition, 1885, page 57.) 

203. By the Constitution Act the colony was divided into six provinces, 
viz. Auckland, New Plymouth, Wellington, Nelson, Canterbury and Otago. 

204. Each province to have a Superintendent, and a Provincial Council 
of not less than nine members, to be elected by the inhabitants. The 
Provincial Council to continue for four years unless previously dissolved by 
the Governor. 

205. Discovery of gold at Auckland : Mr. Charles Eing, after a 
prospecting tour discovered gold in the vicinity of Coromandel Harbour. 
He claimed the reward of 500, October, 1852. 



33 

206. At this period the Bendigo diggings, in Victoria, were attracting 
numerous settlers, owing to the exciting statements made of large quantities 
of gold found. 

207. The Constitution Act was officially promulgated in the colony, 
January, 1853. The first elections took place under it, in September, 1853. 

208. Mr. Edward Gibbon Wakefield, the promoter of colonization to 
New Zealand, arrived at Lyttelton, January, 1853, in the "Minerva," 
from Plymouth. 

209. A meeting of the members of the Church of England was held at 
Wellington, for the consideration of a Church constitution. The Bishop of 
New Zealand laid before the meeting the "basis of a constitution of the 
Church in New Zealand," February 21, 1853. (See J. H. Wallace's Early 
History of New Zealand.) 

210. In March, 1853, Governor Grey issued regulations reducing the 
price of Crown lands from 1 to 10s. and 5s. per acre. This change was 
hailed with satisfaction at Auckland, but at Canterbury, Otago, and 
Wellington, it was considered to be a serious innovation. (See various Land 
Regulations and Acts.) 

211. Small farm settlements in the Wairarapa district were established 
under Committees formed for the purpose, fostered by the aid of Sir 
George Grey. 

212. Mr. E. G. Wakefield arrived in Wellington, March 6, 1853. The 
arrival of Mr. Edward Gibbon Wakefield, the founder of the colony, created 
in the minds of the pioneer settlers a considerable amount of interest ; an 
address of welcome was immediately presented. (See J. H. Wallace's Early 
History of New Zealand.) 

213. The approaching departure of Sir George and Lady Grey from 
New Zealand, called forth the warmest sentiments of respect and kind 
regards from all classes, both European and Native. 

214. The election of Superintendents and Provincial Councils of the 
various provinces, took place in 1853, previous to the departure of Governor 
Grey. 

215. The first commercial steamer arrived in Wellington, September 3rd, 
1853 a pioneer trip from Sydney, via Nelson ; the screw steamer " Ann," 
154 tons, Captain Gibbs. She sailed for Lyttelton. The arrival of this, the 
first commercial or trading steamer, at the ports of Nelson, Wellington, and 
Lyttelton, created considerable interest among the mercantile community, 
who were daily moving in some direction, either privately or publicly, for a 
steam service suitable to the growing wants of the colony. 

215A. The first idea of steam navigation set forth in a patent obtiiined by 
Jonathan Hulls (England), 1736. Thomas Paine proposed steam navigation 
in America, 1778. Olaude Comt'o do Jouffroy constructed an engine, which 
propelled a boat (pyroscaphe) on the Saon, 1783. William Patrick Miller 
patented paddle-wheels, 1787. (He and Mr. Symington are said to have 
constructed a small steamboat, which travelled at about four milos an hour, 
eoon after.) William Symington made a passage on the Forth and Clyde 
Canal, 1790. First experiment with steam navigation on the Thames, 1801. 
Fulton's steamboat " Claremont," on the Seine, 9th August, 1803 ; at New 
York, 1806; started a steamboat on the river Hudson, America, 1807. 



34 

Captain Johnson obtained 10,000 for making the first voyage to India, in 
the " Enterprise," which sailed from Falinouth, 16th August, 1825. 
(Haydn's Dictionary of Dates, 17th edition, 1881, pp. 747, 748.) 

216. Departure of Sir George Grey from Wellington : Numerous 
addresses had been presented from both races, and on Monday, October 10, 
1853, His Excellency Sir George Grey took his final departure from 
Wellington. His Excellency and Lady Grey embarked on board the 
Government brig about two o'clock in the afternoon ; shortly afterwards the 
brig sailed for Auckland. 

217. Departure of Sir George Grey from Auckland : Sir George Grey 
had ruled New Zealand for eight years, when he obtained the Secretary of 
State's permission to return to England. The Europeans and Northern 
Natives presented numerous addresses, breathing a spirit of confidence and 
attachment. Heitikas, and other ancestral ornaments, almost never parted 
with, were freely given to him ; songs were composed, and speeches full of 
eloquence delivered. (See a valuable collection of Maori mementos to His 
Excellency Sir George Grey, K.O.B., F.E.S., by Charles Oliver B. Davis, 
translator and interpreter to the General Government, Auckland, Williamson 
and Wilson, 1855.) 

218. Three days before Sir George Grey's departure, 170 of the principal 
inhabitants of Auckland entertained him at dinner. On the last day of 1853 
Sir George Grey left New Zealand. 

21 8 A. Pioneer settlers who arrived in New Zealand during the period 
it was a Crown colony, viz., up to December 31, 1853. An alphabetical list 
is given ; a valuable colonial record, forming part 3 of J. H. Wallace's 
Early History of New Zealand. 

219. On the departure of Sir George Grey, Colonel Wynyard, C.B., of 
the 58th Eegiment, senior military officer in the colony, and newly-elected 
Superintendent of the Province of Auckland, assumed the administration, 
which he retained till September, 1855, when Colonel Thomas Gore Browne, 
C.B., assumed the Goverment, on 6th September, 1855. 

220. The first meeting of the General Assembly was opened at Auckland, 
Wednesday, 24th May, 1854, at 12 o'clock noon, for the despatch of 
business. Mr. Charles (now Sir Charles) Clifford elected the first speaker, 
May 26, 1854. 

221. Legislative Council, Saturday, 27th May, 1854. His Excellency 
the officer administering the government, Lieutenant- Colonel Wynyard, C.B., 
delivered an opening address. (See Parliamentary Debates, compiled by 
Maurice FitzGerald, p. 7.) 

222. Colonel Gore Browne, C.B., arrived at Auckland, on the 4th 
September, 1855. He had been Governor of St. Helena. The General 
Assembly, in session on the arrival of Colonel Gore Browne, moved an 
address to His Excellency, September 6, 1855. (See Parliamentary Debates.) 

223. Earthquake of 1855 : On the 23rd of January, 1855, at eleven 
minutes past nine, p.m., the first shock which lasted a minute and a half 
occurred, the effects of which were severely felt in the Wellington district. 
(See Captain Drury's Report, Government Gazette, Captain Chesney's 
official MSS. Report Royal Engineers' office, J. H. Wallace's Early History 
of New Zealand, synopsis, and Local Papers.) 



- 35 

223A, At his residence, Fern Grove, died on the 6th December, 1855, 
William Swainson, Esq., F.K.S., F.L.S., &c. An eminent naturalist of 
European reputation; one of the founders of the colony, arrived in Port 
Nicholson, 1841. 

224. Colonel Gore Browne, C.B. , the new Governor, visited the settlements 
of New Plymouth, Nelson, Wellington, Canterbury, and Otago. The 
European population had increased by births and immigration, during the 
last five years, 70 per cent, and at this period numbered 45,000 souls, 
January, 1856. 

225. A new Bishopric established at Christchurch. 

226. Discovery of gold at Otago, 1856: Gold was discovered on the 
banks of the Mataura simultaneously almost with its discovery at the Buller, 
in the Nelson province. 

227. 1857, Constitution Amendment Act, 20 and 21 Vic. c. 53, section 2, 
empowering the General Assembly to vary certain provisions in the 
Constitution Act. 

228. A Maori rununga, held at the residence of Iwikau te Heu Heu, on 
the borders of Taupo Lake, called itself the first Maori parliament, and estab- 
lished an anti-land-selling league. 

229. May, 1857, meeting of second Maori parliament, at Te Heu Heu's 
pah ; land league confirmed, Maori standard raised. 

230. May and June, 1857, meetings of natives in Waikato; Potatau 
proclaimed king. " The result of these meetings was that a king be elected ; 
and the old chief, Te Whero Whero, or Potatau, was chosen by general 
consent. There was great wisdom in that choice ; his rank, by birth, gave 
him a blood connection with several important tribes ; his conquests had 
made him famous , his wisdom in council, his eloquence in debate, and his 
known sagacity, all pointed to him as the man best suited to draw the tribes 
to his standard. He was widely known, and highly respected, but he was 
very old. He did not want office. ' What can I do ? ' he asked, ' who am 
but a bundle of bones.' The poor old man did not live long to enjoy regal 
honour, such as it was, and was succeeded by his son Matutaera." (Rev. 
Jas. Buller's Forty Years in New Zealand, London, 1878, p. 411.) Potatau 
died June 26, 1860. 

231. First regular mail service established to convey a monthly mail, 
under au Admiralty contract, in connection with the P. and 0. Company. 

232. New Bishoprics established: Christchurch, 1856; Nelson and 
Wellington, 1858; Waiapu, 1859. 

232A. New " Provinces Act, 1858," assent gazetted July 18, 1859. 

233. Hawkes Bay, originally part of Wellingtou province, created anew 
Province, 1868. An extensive agricultural and pastoral district ; Napier, 
the capital. 

234. Purchase of Waitara by Governor Browne : "In the month of 
November, 1859, Governor Browne visited the settlement of New Plymouth. 
He had an interview with a number of the natives of the district, and 
announced publicly that if any of them wished to sell land ho was prepared 
to buy, on their showing a good title. A native named Teira (Taylor; rose 
up immediately and offered to sell a block of 600 acres at Waitara. The 



36 

principal chief of Teira's tribe, William King (Wiremu Kingi Whiti 
Rangitaki), declared he would not allow the land to be sold." (Sir William 
Fox's The War in New Zealand, London, 1866, p. 34.) 

235. Surveyors at Waitara stopped : The Governor paid Teira 200 "on 
account," and sent a party of surveyors to mark the boundaries. The 
surveyors were stopped by William King's party ; soldiers were sent by the 
Governor, and in a few days fighting began. The transaction led to the 
Taranaki war. 

236. First Taranaki war: "Active hostilites continued till 21st May, 
1861. The natives entrenched themselves in strong positions, our troops 
followed their example, and shut themselves up in the town of New 
Plymouth. But the natives did not confine themselves to their strongholds ; 
they ravaged, and with the exception of the town, utterly destroyed the 
whole of the flourishing little settlement, which extended over some twenty 
miles in length, by six or eight deep. The whole of the European population 
were either driven into the town their houses and homesteads desolated and 
destroyed ,or they left for other settlements. A few unimportant skirmishes, 
in which we gained little advantage, and the capture of an empty pah or two, 
were all the military operations on our side for several months. At length 
a new general arrived (Pratt), and he undertook the reduction of one of the 
strongholds of the natives by sap. Before he accomplished it, a truce was 
made, and the first campaign of the war came to an end ; having resulted 
in nothing except the utter destruction of the settlement of Taranaki." 
(The War in New Zealand, Sir W. Fox, pp. 35, 36 ; see also New Zealand 
and the War, by W. Swainson, Esq., formerly Attorney-General of New 
Zealand, London, 1872, The History of Taranaki, by W. Wells, New 
Plymouth, 1878, J. H. Wallace's Early History of New Zealand, and 
numerous publications, Parliamentary papers, and pamphlets.) 

237. August 6th, 1861, Captain William Cargill, the leader of the 
Otago pioneers, and the first Superintendent of Otago, died. He was highly 
esteemed by the colonists, who erected a monument to his memory. 

23 8 Governor Browne recalled : The Home Government, finding the 
position of the Colony so serious, gave the reins into other hands. They 
requested the former Governor, Sir George Grey, K.C.B., then Governor of 
the Cape of Good Hope, to return to New Zealand. 

239. The despatch from the Colonial Minister, from Downing Street, 
dated 23rd May, 1861, informing Governor Browne that he was superseded 
by Sir George Grey, after referring to the Taranaki war, says, "Having 
regard, therefore, to the peculiar qualifications and experience of Sir George 
Grey, now governing the Cape of Good Hope, I have felt that I should be 
neglecting a chance of averting a more general and disastrous war, if I 
omitted to avail myself of the remarkable authority which will attach to his 
name and character, as Governor of New Zealand." 

240. " Memorandiim forwarded to Governor Browne, July 4, 1861, 
signed by the Bishop of New Zealand, and several of the Church Missionary 
Society's missionaries, in which they express their conviction that there 
' are not any of the Maoris who desire to be the Queen's enemies,' and that 
the existing difficulties admitted of a peaceful solution." (Christianity 
among the New Zealanders, Bishop of Waiapu, p. 383. 

241. July 18, 1861, first gold arrived at Dunedin. 



37 

242. Major-General Sir Duncan Cameron, C.B., arrived at Auckland, 
and by the "Airdale," proceeded to Taranaki. He succeeded General 
Pratt. Troops in considerable numbers were arriving; Governor Browne 
arranged a truce with the chief William Thompson. Immediately after 
the truce was made in May, 1861, the Governor called on the natives by pro- 
clamation, to make submission, and take the oath of allegiance : very few did ; 
and as the year wore on Governor Browne made his intention known of 
invading Waikato, to compel submission, and punish those tribes which had 
joined in the Taranaki disturbances. 

243. The unfortunate results of the Waitara campaign had the effect of 
spreading sympathy with the insurgents among other tribes. To a deputation 
of settlers that waited on him, His Excellency (Governor Browne) said, 
they must defend themselves, for "war is not made of rose-water." (The 
Eev. Jas. Buller, p. 393.) 

244. The King movement : The Waikato natives persisted in the 
appointment of a King, having interfered in the conflict at Taranaki, and 
having given some reason to suspect a design upon Auckland, the Governor 
resolved to take the war into the heart of their country; but this was 
happily prevented. (Bev. Jas. Buller, p. 394.) 

245. The history of the King movement, and the part taken by Governor 
Browne in reference to it, were thoroughly investigated by the Waikato 
Committee, in 1860. (See Colonial Parliamentary Papers 1860). 

246. Marlborough, originally part of Nelson province, created a new 
province, 1859 ; an important agricultural and pastoral district. 

247. Sir George Grey, K.C.B., for a second time in the hour of difficulty 
and danger, was appointed Governor of New Zealand, as successor to 
Governor Browne. He landed at Auckland, September 26, 1861, and on the 
2nd of October, Governor Browne sailed from Auckland. Sir George Grey, 
administrator October 3rd, and Governor October 4, 1861, to 5th February, 
1868. The new Governor came to restore peace, not to carry on war. 

248. State of natives on the arrival of Sir George Grey: The new 
Governor found the native mind in a most unsettled state. The attitude of 
the Taranaki natives was hostile ; while the powerful Waikatos had thrown 
off their allegiance, and chosen a " King " of their own. 

249. Troops continued to arrive ; and the Governor endeavoured to avert 
war. "No means were left untried to induce the natives to adopt a course 
by which the cause of contention might be amicably got rid of. Governor 
Grey during the first year and a half of his administration, made no 
aggressive movement, unless by friendly argument, against Kingism ; and 
he punished no one for participation in the insurrection of 1860. If ever 
the olive branch was held out in sincerity it was during that period." (The 
War in New Zealand, by Sir W. Fox, p. 54.) 

250. Westland was created a Province tmdor the " Province of Wostland 
Act 1873 ; " now an important mining district. 

25 1 "The Waikatos were cautious; they wore willing to consider the 
Governor's peace proposals, but their King they would not forsake. It was 
agreed to hold a great meeting at Taupiri. This took place on the 12th 
December, 1861, and lasted several days. At the Taupiri meeting Sir Georgo 
Grey made a long speech. Tij>one was chosen as the spokesman on the 



38 

Maori side. After a' long discussion they could obtain no pledge that their 
king would be recognised. They believed that the Governor would try to 
depose him ; and this was confirmed by his proceeding to employ the troops 
to make a road through the Hunua forest." (The Eev. Jas. Buller's Forty 
Years in New Zealand, pp. 397, 398 ; also O.P.P.) 

252. Death of Edward Gibbon Wakefield : On the 16th of May, 1862, 
Mr. Edward Gibbon Wakefield, whose labours connected with modern 
colonization, and with the colonization of New Zealand previously alluded 
to, died at his residence, in Wellington, at the age of 66 years. 

253. General Cameron had a large force at his command. To utilize 
them, as w<;ll as to be prepared for any ulterior measure, they were employed 
in forming a road through the wood leading to the Waikato. 

254. Imperial control over native affairs abandoned, May 30, 1862. 

255. " Sir George Grey decides that the Waitara block had been wrested 
from the natives by the late Government without any legal title. He 
resolves on giving it up ; but, before this was publicly known, takes 
military possession of the Tataraimaka block, which the natives held in 
pledge for the Waitara. Eegarding this as a recommencement of hostilities, 
they cut off a small party of two officers and six men, on their way from 
Taranaki to Tataraimaka, May 4, 1863." (Christianity among the New 
Zealanders, Bishop of Waiapu, p. 382. This is also referred to in the 
paragraph " Renewal of the Taranaki war, 1863.") 

256. The Maori chiefs signed a poetical address of condolence to the 
Queen on the death of the Prince Consort. (" Prince Albert died 14th 
December, 1861, deeply lamented by the whole civilized world. His remains 
were transferred to the mausoleum of Frogmore, 18th December, 1862. 
The sarcophagus is composed of the largest known block of granite without 
flaw." Haydn's Dictionary of Dates, London, 1881, p. 22.) 

257. Death of Captain Liardet: Captain Liardet, E.N., died at Green- 
wich, aged 65, March 1, 1863. He was the leader of the New Plymouth 
(Taranaki) settlers, in 1841. (See J. H. Wallace's Early History of New 
Zealand for an account of his career.) 

258. On May 4th, an ambuscade cut off two officers and eight troopers, 
who were in charge of stores. This was the renewal of hostilities, or the 
commencement of the second Taranaki war. Governor Grey had visited 
Taranaki in April, 1863, and gave up Waitara; this was by the natives 
taken as a proof of conscious weakness, and the result of fear; it gave 
boldness to the disaffected, and apprehension to the loyal natives. 

259. During the absence of Governor Grey, who left Auckland for 
Taranaki, the Waikatos forcibly expelled from their territory the English 
magistrate (Mr. Gorst), and openly opposed the Queen's authority. 

260. Satisfied that the Waikato tribes had instigated the Taranaki 
people to resistance, that their " overt acts were evidence of a determination 
to fight, and that a plan of attack upon Auckland was already formed, he 
recalled General Cameron, with all the soldiers he could spare from Taranaki ; 
and now began the Waikato campaign." (Eev. Jas. Buller, p. 401.) 

261. " By the beginning of July, 1863, General Cameron had concentrated 
a strong force on the boundary between the settled European districts 
and the unsold Maori lands." (Sir W. Fox, p, 63.) 



39 

262. General Cameron's operations: "The Maungatawire Creek, the 
Rubicon of the Maoris, was crossed 1 2th July, 1863; a series of engagements 
followed. The natives fought bravely, suffered heavy losses, and were at 
last defeated ; but they kept their king and their flag, and keep them still. 
About a hundred and sixty thousand acres of land were consficated, and, to 
a large extent, allocated to military settlers. No formal peace was made, or 
asked for. While active fighting lapsed in the Waikalo, it was going on at 
Taranaki, Wanganui, and on the south-east coast. Raids, panics, murders, 
were of common occurrence. Disputes arose between the Governor and his 
Ministers, and also between him and the General." (The Rev. Jas. Buller, 
p. 401 ; see also for interesting details of this eventful period, Parliamentary 
Papers and Despatches, The War in New Zealand, by Sir W. Fox, London, 
1866, History of Taranaki, by B. Wells, New Zealand, 1878, New Zealand 
and the War, W. Swainson, Esq., London, 1862, Lieutenant Gudgeon's War 
in New Zealand, London, 1879, J. H. Wallace's Early History of New 
Zealand, synopsis, and numerous other works, pamphlets, and newspaper 
reports. 

263. Native population: The total number of natives in New Zealand, 
according to a Government census taken in 1858, was 31,667 males and 
24,303 females, together 55,970 of all ages and sexes in both islands ; 20,000 
of the males may be taken as fighting men, and it must be borne in mind 
that the women do much work connected with the war. Of the 20,000 
fighting men, however, according to Governor Grey's estimate, we never had 
2,000 in arms against us at any one time, and it is shown by an examination 
of General Cameron's despatches, that the troops were never actually 
engaged with more than 600, and not often with more than 200 to 400. (Sir 
W.Fox, p. 2.) 

264. European population : " The European population in both Islands, 
in December, 18u4, 171,931 ; but more than half of these were in the 
Middle Island, and those in the north could not be moved about for military 
purposes at any distance from their homes, for the obvious reason that by so 
doing their homes would have been left unprotected, and aggression by rebels 
have been an immediate consequence. They were all, however, armed, 
enrolled, and drilled as militia and volunteers, and in some instances for a 
length of time, relieved the Queen's troops, and enabled them to take the 
field in greater force." (Sir W. Fox's, The War in New Zealand, p. 4.) 

265. Military force under General Cameron: The actual military force 
serving under General Cameron was, in round numbers, 10,000 Queen's 
troops, including a troop of field artillery, 5,000 military settlers, enlisted 
for three years, under regular training, five frigates, and sloops-of-war, of 
the Royal Navy, which furnished a naval brigade of more than 300 men, 
and were constantly employed in shelling pahs on the coast, blockading 
harbours, carrying troops, and other operations. Two steamers belonging 
to the commissariat, and seven or eight sea and river-going steamers 
belonging to the Colonial Government ; one an ironclad, with turrets, another 
ball-proof against small arms. Besides the field artillery, one large llOlb. 
Armstrong, and two 40lb. Armstrongs, with a great number of smaller guns, 
mortars, and cohorns, were used whenever necessary. There were also four 
or five well-mounted and very active cavalry corps, amounting in all to about 
500 men. (Sir W. Fox's The War in New Zealand, pp. 4 and 5.) 

266. The details of the New Zealand war will be found in the Colonial 
Parliamentary Papers and Despatches, New Zealand Government Gazettes, 
the Colonial newspapers, and ui the following works: Mojor-Geuoral Sir 



40 

J. Alexander, Bush Fighting, narrative of the principal events in the field 
in the war of 1863-65, London, 1873; Major-General Alexander, Incidents 
of Maori "War, New Zealand, 1860-61, London, 1863; Account of the 
Taranaki War, 1860-61 ; Sir William Fox's The War in New Zealand, 
London, 1866.; Lieutenant T. W. Gudgeon's Eeminiscences of the War in New 
Zealand, a narrative of skirmishes and expeditions in which the colonial 
forces took part, London, 1879 ; New Zealand and the War, by William 
Swainson, Esq., formerly Attorney- General for New Zealand, London, 
1862 ; Forty Years in New Zealand, Rev. Jas. Buller, London, 1878 ; 
History of Taranaki, by W. Wells, New Zealand, 1878 ; J. H. Wallace's 
Early History of New Zealand, and numerous pamphlets. 

267. 1861, Juno. Gold discovered at Otago, &c. 

268. 1863, July 1st. First electric telegraph opened in New Zealand. 

268 A. ORIGIN OF TELEGRAPHS: (From the Greek, tele, afar, andgrapho, 
I write). JEschylus, in his Agamemnon (B.C. 500), describes the communi- 
cation of intelligence by burning torches as signals. Polybius, the Greek 
historian (who died about 122, B.C.), calls the different instruments used by 
the ancients for communicating information, pyrsice, because the signals were 
always made by fire. In 1663, a plan was suggested by the Marquis of 
Worcester, and a telegraph was suggested by Dr. Hooke, 1684. M. 
Amontons is also said to have been the inventor of telegraphs about this 
period. (Haydn's Dictionary of Dates, 17th edition, 1S81, p. 770.) 

269. 1863, New Zealand Boundaries ; an Act defining the limits of the 
colony, 26 and 27 Viet., c. 23. 

270. 1863, February 7th. Wreck of H.M. steam corvette " Orpheus," 
on Manakau Bar; Commodore and 187 of crew drowned. (See J. H. Wallace's 
Early History of New Zealand.) 

271. 1863, July 17. Waikato tribe driven from a fort. 

272. August. War spreads ; natives construct rifle-pits. 
273 1 September. Proposed consfication of Waikato lands. 

274. November 20. General Cameron severely defeats the Maoris at 
Eangariri ; Maoris' loss, 50 killed, and 183 prisoners ; British loss, 41 killed, 
and 91 wounded. 

275. 1864, December 3rd. Railway from Lyttelton to Christchurch 
opened ; the first in the colony. Since this period, under the Public Works 
policy, the construction of railways on a large and systematic scale has been 
conducted. The total length of lines open for traffic in October, 1885, was 
1,497 miles; and under construction 155 miles. 

275A. ORIGIN OF RAILWAYS: "Short roads, in and* about Newcastle 
(England), laid down by Mr. Beaumont, so early as 1602, are thus mentioned 
in 1676. ' The manner of the carriage is by laying rails of timber from the 
colliery to the river, exactly straight and parallel; and bulky carts are 
made with four rollers fitting those rails, whereby the carriage is so easy 
that one horse will draw four or five chaldron of coals, and is an immense 
benefit to the coal merchants.' Roger North, They were made of iron at 
Whitehaven, in 1738. An iron railway laid down near Sheffield, by John 
Curr (destroyed by the colliers), 1776. The first considerable iron railway 
was laid down at Colebrookdale, 1786. The first locomotive constructed by 
George Stephenson, travelled at the rate of six miles per hour, 1814. 
(Haydn's Dictionary of Dates, 17th edition, 1881, p. 656.) 



276. December 8, 9. Capitulation of the Maori King; the British 
ensign supplants the Maori King's flag at Ngaruawahia. 

277. 1864, April 4th. Outbreak of the Pai Mariri, or Hau Hau 
heresy, a compound of Judaism and paganism, among the Maoris ; the Rev. 
C. S. Volkner murdered, March 1865, and many outrages committed. 
March : proclamation of Governor Sir George Grey against it ; it is 
checked by the agency of a friendly chief, Wi Tako. 

This superstitution was the work of some designing Maori ; the accounts 
given of its origin, by the natives themselves, are various and absurd. 
Disgusting and revolting acts were committed by the Hau Haus. (See 
J. H. Wallace's Early History of New Zealand, synopsis.) 

278. 1864. Action at Orakau terminating Waikato campaign. 

278A. February 17. Foundation stone New Zealand Exhibition laid 
at Duuedin. 

279. April 29. Attack on Gate Pah, Tauranga, and repulse of British 
attack, with loss of 35 killed, and 76 wounded. 

280. Wanganui settlement defended by loyal natives, May, 1864. The 
island of Moutua fixed upon as the battle-ground. A memorable battle 
between the loyal natives and the Hau Hau fanatics, who were defeated with 
great slaughter ; the friendly natives also suffered severely. A monument 
was raised to the memory of the natives who fell at Moutua. (See Sir 
William Fox's narrative ; Dr. Featherston's report, C.P.P., 1864, No. 3, 
p. 80 ; also J. H. Wallace's Early History of New Zealand, synopsis.) 

281. May 25. Tauranga natives give allegiance to Colonel Greer. 

282. July. Loan of 1,000,000 to New Zealand, granted by British 
Parliament. 

283. July 8. Baron de Thierry died. 

284. June 21. Action at Te Ranga, Tauranga; Maoris defeated with 
loss of 123 killed, and 12 wounded. 

285. August 2. Maori prisoners taken to Kawau the country seat 
of Sir George Grey an island about thirty miles from Auckland ; they 
were employed in clearing land and building houses ; after remaining there 
six weeks they escaped. 

286. September llth and 12th. Maori prisoners escape and form the 
nucleus of a new insurrection. 

287. October 3. Wellington made the seat of Government. 

288. October 25. Sir George Grey issues proposals of peace. The 
Aborigines Protection Society send religious, moral, and political advice to 
the Maoris ; (considered injudicious.) 

289. November 24. The seat of Government removed from Auckland 
to Wellington, Cook's Strait. 

290. Gold discovered at Hokitika, and the river Grey, on the West 
Coast South Island. 

291. 1865, January 12. The New Zealand Exhibition of 1865 opened 
at Dunedin. (See J. H. Wallace's Early History of New Zealand, synopsis, 
for details of this interesting event.) 



42 

291 A. January 28. John Percy Eobinson, Superintendent of the Province 
of Nelson, drowned. 

2913. April 15, Admiral Fitzrcy died, formerly Governor of New 
Zealand. 

292. Second battle in defence of Wanganui, between the Pai Mariri and 
the friendly natives (the first battle was Moutua) ; the latter under the 
command of the chief John Williams, who had been for many years head 
catechist to the Church Missionary Society's Mission at Wanganui. Defeat 
of the Pai Mariri, February 23rd, 1865 ; John Williams dies of his wounds, 
February 24 ; on the 27th, all the authorities at Wanganui, civil and 
military, follow his remains to the grave, the British ensign forming his 
pall. (Bishop of Waiapu, 384 ; Sir William Fox's War in New Zealand, 
pp. 211, 212, &c. ; also J. H.Wallace's Early History of New Zealand, 
synopsis.) 

293. "The Pai Mariri reach Turanga, March 16, 1865. The Bishop of 
Waiapu leaves Turanga for Auckland, April 3, 1865." (Bishop of Waiapu, 
p. 384.) 

294. " The Christian chiefs from Otaki, Wi Tako and Matene Te Whiwhi, 
reach Turanga, and resist the action of the Pai Mariri." (Bishop of 
Waiapu, p. 3840 

295. 1865, May 25. William Thompson, an eminent chief , surrenders on 
behalf of the Maori King. 

296. May 6. New Zealand Exhibition, Dunedin, closed. 

297. August. The Hau Haus beaten in several conflicts. 

298. August 17. Cook's Strait Cable laid. 

299. September 2. The Governor proclaims peace. 

300. September 15. British troops about to leave the colony. 

301. October. The Maoris treacherously kill the convoys of peace. 

302. December 12. Unveiling the Moutua monument at Wanganui, 
erected in the market place, to the memory of the brave men who had fallen 
in the battle of Moutua. (See J. H. Wallace's Early History of New 
Zealand, synopsis.) 

303. 1866, January. Major-General Trevor Chute subdues the Hau 
Haus , commenced his memorable march from Wanganui to New Plymouth, 
January 1, 1866, and on the 27th January made a triumphal entry into New 
Plymouth; returned to Wanganui, February 7, 1866, where he embarked 
with his staff for Wellington, in the steamer "Ahuriri," where he was 
feted, and received the thanks of Governor Grey and the colony. "It will 
be my duty to bring prominently to the notice of the Right Honourable the 
Secretary of State for War, and his Royal Highness, the Field-Marshall 
commanding-iu-chief, the noble and gallant conduct of the whole of the 
troops engaged in these operations." Extract from the address to General 
Chute ; " By your courage and sagacity you have in a few weeks brought 
to a close on the West Coast, an expensive and ruinous war, which has lasted 
for some years, which has been productive of most serious losses to the 
settlers, and has entailed heavy embarrassment on the colony, and a great 



43 

expense on the mother country." (See J. H. Wallace's Early History of 
New Zealand for details of this campaign, synopsis.) 

304-1 Maori prisoners escaped from hulk, in Wellington harbour. The 
Governor confined sixty prisoners on board a vessel in the Wellington 
harbour. One dark night (January 29) they escaped. Four were drowned 
in trying to swim ashore ; three came back pressed by hunger ; two were 
shot by parties sent in pursuit ; the remainder were not seen again. 

305. May 17. Murderers of the Rev. Mr. Volkner executed at Auckland. 
Mr. Volkner was a Prussian by birth, and a Lutheran by profession. He came 
to New Zealand in connection with a Hamburg Society, but subsequently 
joined the English Church, and was ordained by Bishop Williams of Waiapu. 
He was a most excellent man. 

306. 1866, July. The Governor announces cessation of war. The docu- 
ment announcing peace says, "The Governor took up arms to protect the 
European settlements from destruction, and to punish those who refused to 
settle by peaceable means the difficulties which had arisen, but resorted to 
violence, and plunged the country into war." (Sir W. Fox, The War in 
New Zealand.) 

307. August 15th. Cook's Strait cable laid, communication between 
North and Middle Island. 

308. December 28. Death of William Thompson Ti Waharoa, a 
celebrated Maori chief, termed the "King-maker," from the influence he 
exercised over his countrymen. 

309. 1867, February. Gold discovered in great quantities in Molyneax 
Eiver, Otago. 

310. August 1. Thames goldfield opened; at the time caused con- 
siderable excitement in consequence of large finds of the precious metal. 

311. August 17. Hunt and party find gold at Kuranui Creek the 
Sholover claim. 

312. November 19. Sir George F. Bowen appointed to succeed Sir 
George Grey, gazetted. 

313. July 16. Archdeacon Henry Williams died ; he was one of the 
most eminent and devoted missionaries of the Church of England. His 
labours extended over 44 years, he having arrived in New Zealand in the 
year 1823. (See Life of Henry Williams, by Hugh Carlton, 2 vols., 
Auckland, 1874.) 

31 *r New Zealand Institute. An Act passed for establishing an institute 
for the advancement of science and art in New Zealand, 1867, No. 36. 

315. Telegraphs, telephones; numerous acts relating thereto, ]867 
to 1884. 

315A. ORIGIN ov TELEPHONE: Telephone (from the Greek, tele', afar, 
phone, voice, sound), a name now given to apparatus for transmitting 
articulate and musical sounds, by means of wire, vibrating rods, threads, or 
magneto-electricity." (Haydn's Dictionary of Dates, 17th edition, p. 771.) 

316. 1868. An Act relating to the abolition of Provinces, 31 and 32 
Vic., c, 92. 



44 

317. April 16. The first Maori elected M.H.E., giving to the native 
race a voice in the General Assembly. 

318. Surveys of land; providing for the security and preservation of 
trigonometrical stations, boundary and survey marks, 1868, No. 9. 

Native land : All surveys thereof to be conducted under the control and 
supervision of the Surveyor-General, 1876, No. 51, s. 20 ; for purposes of 
Native Land Court, 1880, No. 38, ss. 39, 42 ; discharge of surveyor's liens, 
1882, No. 27, s. 6. (Cumin's Index to Laws of New Zealand, oth edition, 
p. J.20, 1885.) 

319. June 9. Outbreak of Titokowaru at Taranaki, and commencement 
of West Coast campaign. 

320. Escape of prisoners from the Chatham Islands: July 3. Escape of 
Te Kooti and rest of Maori prisoners from Chatham Islands, and their return 
to Poverty Bay. They were taken in the East Coast campaign, and numbered 
one hundred and eighty-seven. The " Eifleman," a schooner, conveying 
stores to the Chatham Islands for the prisoners, was seized by Te Kooti and 
the prisoners, July 3rd. Set sail for Poverty Bay, and on the evening of the 
10th July, the "Eifleman" arrived at Whareongaonga, tix miles from 
Tauranganui. The escaped prisoners made their way over a very rough 
country, and began another guerilla warfare, which lasted two years. (See 
Eev. Jas. Buller ; Lieutenant Gudgeon ; J. H. Wallace's Early History of 
New Zealand, Colonial Parliamentary Papers ; and the local journals.) 

321. August 4. The New Zealand Institute opened by His Excellency 
Sir George F. Bowen, G.C.M.G., the first president. 

322. Death of Dr. Evans. September 23, George Samuel Evans, D.C.L., 
one of New Zealand's most eminent colonists, died in Wellington. He took 
an active pait with Edward Gibbon Wakefield, and others, in founding 
the colony, 1838-9 and 1840. (See J. H. Wallace's Early History of New 
Zealand.) 

323. Acts providing for the endowment of a Colonial University. (1868, 
No. 65; 1874, No. 53, s. 30; 1875, No. 60, part s. 2 repealed; 1880, No. 32.) 

324. November 10. Poverty Bay Massacre: About midnight, November 
9, 1868, the inhabitants of Poverty Bay were surprised by an attack from Te 
Kooti and his followers. Twenty-nine Europeans and thirty-two loyal 
natives were brutally murdered. The settlement was destroyed. The 
unhappy survivors found homes in Auckland and other places. (See the 
authors previously quoted and J. H. Wallace's Early History of New 
Zealand, synopsis.) 

325. 1869, January 5. Te Kooti and the rebels defeated by Colonel 
(now Sir George) Whitmore. 130 Maoris killed. (For list of skirmishes 
with the fanatic Hau Haus see appendix to Lieutenant Gudgeon's Eeminis- 
cences of the War in New Zealand, London, 1879; also J. H. Wallace's 
Early History of New Zealand, synopsis. 

3 25 A. February 12. Massacre of settlers at Taranaki, at the White 
Cliffs. The Eev. John Whitely, Lieut. Bamber Gascoigne, Mrs. Gascoigne 
and family (3) and two soldiers ; in all, eight murdered. 

325B. October. Te Kooti, thrice defeated by the colonists and friendly 
natives, a fugitive. 

326. October 7. Despatch from Earl Granyille, insisting on the with- 
drawal of the British troops, causes much dissatisfaction. 



45 

327. November 8. Friendly interview between the Native Minister and 
the Maori King's Minister. 

328. Increased demand for the New Zealand flax, which became an 
important export. 

329. 1870, January 22. Departure of the last British troops. 

330. January 24. Flying Squadron arrived at Wellington. 

331. January 24. Te Kooti, refusing to surrender at discretion, 
narrowly escapes, February 5. 

332. February 8. Art Exhibition opened at Christchurch. 

333- June 10. Archdeacon Hadfield appointed bishop of Wellington. 

334. The Immigration and Public Works Act and cognate Acts were 
passed. This scheme was first propounded to the country by Mr. (now Sir 
Julius) Vogel. 

335. July 31. Te Kooti's party attacked and dispersed; his speedy 
capture anticipated. 

336. New Zealand and Australian Submarine Telegraph : An Act 
authorizing the Governor to contract for the construction and laying of a 
submarine electric telegraph cable to connect New Zealand with the 
Australian colonies, 1870, No. 84; 1873, No. 36. 

337. August 22. The Duke of Edinburgh in the " Galatea," at 
Wellington. His visit caused considerable interest among the settlers 
generally. 

338. August. Political union of the islands effected. 

339. December 28. Murder of Mr. Todd, surveyor, by Maoris. 

340. 1871, February 16. The Duke of Edinburgh left Auckland. 

341. April 5. Dr. Featherston sailed for England. The first Agent- 
General sent to England from New Zealand to represent the colony. 

342. November. Te Kooti reported as living by plunder ; acting as a 
fanatical potentate. 

343. October 6. The Otago University opened. 

344. November 28. Wanganui bridge opened by His Excellency Sir 
George Bowen. This splendid iron bridge is the longest in the North 
Island, being, with its approaches, nearly 600 feet long. 

345. August 4. The celebrated chief Tainati Waka, died at the Bay of 
Islands. This remarkable man, and friendly ally of the British, greatly 
assisted in the peaceable settlement of the North Island. 

348. An Act passed providing for the constitution of Road Boards in 
Native Districts, 1871, No. 9. 

346A. An Act passed for encouraging planting of forest trees, 1871, 
No. 32, sections 9 and 18 repealed ; 1872, No. 49 ; 1879, No. 22. 

346B, The Rev. Dr. Burns died, January, 1871, in his sevonty- 
sixth year; he arrived with the pioneer settlers of Otago, and stood 
towards the Scotch colonists as their spiritual adviser and director in things 
sacred. He was greatly beloved by all classes of the community. 



46 

347. 1872, March. Friendly meeting of Mr. Donald (afterwards Sir 
Donald) McLean with Wirimu Kingi and other chiefs, who submit to the 
British Government through Mr. McLean's influence. 

348. In 1872 Public Works and Immigration. Each department was 
placed separately in the charge of a Minister. 

349. 1873, June 3. Bishop Viard died at Wellington ; highly esteemed 
by all classes of the community; a devoted minister of the Catholic church. 

350. March. Sir James Fergusson appointed Governor: arrived June 14. 
350 A. March 21 to June 14. Sir George Alfred Arney, Administrator. 

351. December 20. Aucklaud-Onehunga railway opened. 

352. 1874, December 3, the Marquis of Normanby, Administrator; 
January 9, 1875, Governor. 

353. October 17. Wellington College opened by Sir James Fergusson. 

354. December 3. Sir James Fergusson left New Zealand. 

355. New Zealand University. An Act repealing "The New Zealand 
University Act, 1870, "and reconstituting the University created thereunder, 
1874, No. 53, sec. 23 repealed ; 1883, No. 2. 

355A. Transit of Venus. Expeditions for the accurate observations of 
the phenomena, on December 8, astronomical day ; ordinary day, December 
9, 1874, were sent to different parts of the globe by all the great powers, and 
favourable results have been reported from New Zealand and other portions of 
the globe where observations were made. 

356. 1875, February. The Maori King submits to the British govern- 
ment. 

356A. Death of Felix Wakefield, Esq., December 24, 1875. He was an 
active promoter of the formation of the Canterbury settlement. 

357. October 12. Provinces abolished ; came into complete force, 1876. 
In 1875, a colonial Act passed, abolishing the whole of the provincial 
system (1875, No. 21, sees. 14 to 28 repealed), and in the following year 
another Act was passed making provision for the division of the colony into 
counties and for machinery for their local self-government (1876, No. 47, 
sees. 11 'to 13, 15, 20, 28, 41, 50 to 53, 78, 80, 107 to 111, 144, 177 to 179, 
198 to 202, part sees. 47, 59 and 104 repealed; 1877. No. 35, part sec. 2 
repealed; 1880, No. 46, sees. 5, 6 and 24 repealed; 1882, No. 44, sec. 16, 
part sees.' 14, 20. 60 repealed ; 1883, No. 36, sees. 51 to 53 repealed Curnin's 
Index to the' Laws of New Zealand, 1885, p. 57). 

358. 1876, June 5. Auckland Institute opened. 

359. February 19. New Zealand telegraph cable laid. 

360. June 21. Dr. Isaac Earle Featherston, a distinguished colonist, 
died in England. He was the first Superintendent for the province of 
Wellington under the Constitution Act, a leading member of the House of 
Representatives, and the first Agent-General sent to London to represent 
the colony. 

361. August 30. Sir Julius Vogel, K.C.M.G., succeeds Dr. Featherston 
as Agent-General for the colony. In 1875, the Official Hand Book of New 
Zealand was published, edited by Julius Vogel, C.M.G., London, printed for 



47 

the Government of New Zealand, 1875, containing introduction by the 
editor, and a valuable collection of papers by experienced colonists on the 
colony as a whole and on the several provinces. 

363. 1877, August 17. San Francisco mail service commenced. 
January 8. Sir Donald McLean, K.C.M.GK, died at Napier. For many 
years a distinguished member of the House of Representatives, Native 
Minister and Superintendent of the province of Hawkes Bay. Buried with 
Masonic honours. He was the first Grand Master of the Southern Division 
of New Zealand. 

OD4-. Special settlements May be proclaimed. Conditions thereof: 
1877, No. 15, sec. 4; 1879, No. 21, sees. 24, 25; at Catlins River, for High- 
land crofters, 1884, No. 34, sec. 42. 

365. Deferred payment lands Provisions regulating occupation : 1877, 
No. 29, sees. 53-73; 1879, No. 21, sees. 3-6, 8, 10-13, 17-19; 1882, No. 46, 
sees. 58-64; 1884, No. 34, sees. 7-18. 

3 DO. Education and education districts making further provision for 
the education of the people: 1877, No. 21; 1882, No. 54; 1884, No. 52. 

3 B7i Acts providing for the management of the state forests by Land 
Boards: 1877, No. 29, sees. 91-97. 

368. NOTE. The work does not admit of a fuller explanation than the 
mere reference to the passing of these public Acts. 

369. April 11. Bishop Selwyu (Lord Bishop of Litchfield) died in 
England. 

370. February 9. Bishop Williams, of Waiapu, died in New Zealand. 

3 71 . September. The Christchurch and Dunedin railway opened by His 
Excellency the Marquis of Normanby, Governor. Grand banquets at 
Christchurch and Dunedin to commemorate the event. 

372. 1879, May 25. Disputes with the Maoris; they expel British 
settlers near New Plymouth, Taranaki, and plough the land. 

373. Act making provisions regulating the establishment of village 
settlements: 1879, No. 21, sees. 20-23. 

374. Death of Captain Cook (1779); centenary, February 14, 1879. 
One hundred years ago this day Captain Cook was killed. James Cook, 
accompanied by Mr. (afterwards Sir) Joeeph Banks, sailed from England in 
the "Endeavour" on his first voyage, July 30, 1768, and returned home 
after having circumnavigated the globe, arriving at Deal June 12, 1771. 
The chief object of the expedition, at the request of the Royal Society, was 
the observation of the transit of Venus over the sun's disc, which was 
effected June 3, 1769. Captain Cook sailed to explore the southern hemi- 
sphere July 13, 1772, and returned July 30, 1775. In his last expedition 
(begun July 12, 1776) he was killed by the savages of Owhyhee, February 14th 
1779. His ships, the "Resolution" and "Discovery" arrived at Sheerness 
October 4, 1780. (Haydn's Dictionary of Dates, seventeenth edition, by B. 
Vincent, librarian of the Royal Institution of Great Britain; London, 1881, 
p. 207.) 

375. February 21. James (now Sir James) Prendergast, C.M.G., Chief 
Justice, Administrator, February 21, 1879, to March 27, 1879. 

376.^March 27. Sir Hercules George Robert Robinson, K.C.M.G., 
Administrator; Governor. April 17, 1879, to September 8, 1880. 



377i June 20. The settlers recover their lands on the West Coast by 
force. 

378. Great influence of Erueti (now Te Whiti), a fanatical Christian 
Maori, aged 45. He supports Maori claims, but checks bloodshed. 

379. 1873. Triennial Parliaments. An Act providing for the ordinary 
duration of the General Assembly in Parliament, 1879, No. 43. 

380. 1880. John Wallace, originally one of the pioneer settlers to 
New Plymouth ("Amelia Thompson"), died at Wellington, New Zealand, 
March 16, 1880, aged 92. His works of art, water colours, and pencil 
drawings were highly esteemed in England. 

381. October 26. Sir F. D. Bell, K.C.M.G., appointed Agent-General 
for New Zealand. He has been intimately connected with New Zealand 
affairs since 18-39, and is one of New Zealand's most distinguished colonists. 
Created Companion of the Order of the Bath (C.B.), June, 1886, for services 
in connection with the Colonial and Indian Exhibition. 

382. September 9. Sir James Prendergast, Chief Justice, K.C.M.G., 
Administrator, 9th September to 29th November 1880. 

383. November 29. Sir Arthur Hamilton Gordon, K.G.C.M.G., Gover- 
nor, 29th November 1880 to 24th June, 1882. 

384. An Act empowering the Governor to settle outstanding questions 
on the West Coast, authorising the making of reserves for the natives, 
constituting a new land district, and providing penalties for special offences 
committed in the district, 1880, No. 39. 

385. Acts providing for the administration of reserves made for natives 
within the consficated territory on the West Coast of the North Island, 1881, 
No. 19, part section 8 repealed; 1884, No. 33. 

385. Acts providing for the settlement of loyal natives on the confiscated 
lands, subject to compulsory residence, 1880, No. 40; 1884, No. 16. 

387. Numerous Acts relating to native lands. See Index to the Laws of 
New Zealand, general, local, and provincial, fifth edition, brought down to 
the end of the second session of 1884, by John Curnin, B.A., of the Inner 
Temple, Wellington, G. Didsbury, 1885, pp. 97 to 100. 

388. Population. The census of 1881 gave the European population of 
New Zealand as 489,933 persons ; males, 269,605 ; females, 220,328. The 
estimated population on 31st December, 1883, was 540,877 persons; males, 
294,665; females, 246,212. The native population was estimated in 1881 at 
44,000 ; about 42,000 of whom are in the North Island, and about 2,000 in 
the South Island. 

NOTE. The Government had a new census taken on Sunday, March 28, 
1886, with the following results : In Counties, 327,328 persons ; males, 
184,537; females, 142,791. In Boroughs, 245,612 persons ; males, 129,961 ; 
females, 122,651. In adjacent Islands, 617 persons; males, 403; 
females, 214. On ship board, 4,726 persons; males, 4,214; females, 
512. Total, 578,283. Native population, March 28, 1886, males and 
females, 41,432. 

389. The European population of the Chatham Islands in 1881, was 
196 persons ; of whom 115 were males, and 81 females. There were about 
125 natives in the Islands ; the aboriginal population which was above 



49 

1,000, having been nearly exterminated in 1830 by a native tribe from 
New Zealand. This tribe, after conquering and occupying the Islands for 
nearly twenty years, returned to their old home. On the 31st December, 

1883, the estimated European population was 265 persons ; males, 171 ; 
and females, 94. The main industry of the Chatham Islands is pastoral. 
The Chatham Islands are within the limits of the colony, though not 
included within any provincial district or county. (Official Hand Book of 
New Zealand, by W. Gisborne, Esq., edited by the Agent General, London, 

1884, part HI., p. 101.) 

390. 1881, November^. Dispersal of Te Whiti and his followers at 
Parihaka. 

391. The Auckland Islands are uninhabited. They are within the limits 
of the Colony, lying to the southward of New Zealand, between the 
parallels of 50 min. 30 sec. and 51 min. south, and the meridians of 165 min. 
55 sec. and 166 min. 15 sec. east. There are several harbours; and depots 
of provisions have been established in some of them for the benefit of 
shipwrecked persons. (New Zealand Hand Book, 1884, part III., p. 101.) 

392. May 26. A comet appeared in the southern hemisphere ; visible in 
London, June 22, 1881. Described in Haydn's Dictionary of Dates, 17th 
edition, p. 196: "A bright comet, large nucleus, fan-shaped tail." This 
comet was visible in all parts of New Zealand and seen to great advantage. 

393. 1581, September 15. William Sef ton Moorhouse died. TheLyttelton 
tunnel is a standing memorial to his memory. The Moorhouse Statue, 
unveiled at Christchurch, December, 1885, by His Excellency Governor Sir 
W. F. D. Jervois, the work of the eminent sculptor Lawson, is erected a few 
yards inside the handsome double gates leading into the public gardens from 
Hereford Street. The figure is seated, draped in modern costume, and 
facing as nearly as may be lowards the tunnel, with which the name of 
Moorhouse is inseparably connected. The pedestal is a single cube of blue 
stone, on the face of which is carved the inscription: "William Sefton 
Moorhouse, to whose energy and perseverance Canterbury owes the tunnel 
between the port and the plains." On the right hand side is carved : 
" Born, 1825; Died, 1881." On the left Land: "Superintendent, 1858-62 ; 
1866-68." 

393 A. Death of the Hon. Henry Samuel Chapman, at Dunedin, 
December 27, 1881. A Judge of the Supremo Court of New Zealand, 
contemporary with the late Chief Justice, Sir William Martin. Mr. Chapman 
had taken an active part in the foundation of the Colony. He arrived in 
New Zealand in 1843. His papers, pamphlets, and "Appeals" upon the 
subject of colonization were numerous. 

394. 1882, May 24. First shipment of frozen meat to England ; now 
an important export. (See official returns.) 

395. 1882, April 10. Now Zealand Exhibition at Christchurch opened by 
His Excellency Sir Arthur Hamilton Gordon, Governor, in the presence of a 
vast concourse of people. Messrs. Joubert and Twopeny organised this 
Exhibition. 

396. June 24. Sir James Prendergast, Chief Justice, Administrator, 
24th June, 1882, to 20th January, 1883. 

397. 1881,, November 5. The fall of Parihaka. The Honourable John 
Bryce, Native Minister, proceeded with the colonial forces, under Colonel 
Eoberts, invested Parihaka, and took the Maori prophets Te Whiti and Tohu 



50 

prisoners. The natives, who were Under the control of the prophet Te 
Whiti, did not offer any resistance. (See narratives in the local journals, 
and in J. H. Wallace's History of New Zealand, synopsis.) 

398. The transit of Venus, December 7, 1882, observed in New Zealand 
with complete success. It is only eight years since the last transit of Venus 
occured, but that was separated from its predecessor by an interval of 105J 
years, and 121 years must elapse before astronomers will again have the 
opportunity of observing the phenomena. (Local Journals.) 

399. January 20. Major-General Sir W. F. D. Jervois, G.C.M.G., C.B., 
E.E., Governor. 

400. 1883, April 10. Sir George Alfred Arney, formerly Chief Justice of 
New Zealand, died in England. 

401. 1883, July 24. F. E. Mailing died in England. Judge of the Native 
Land Court, and author of "Old New Zealand, by a Pakeha Maori," 
London, Smith, Elder and Co., 1863. "A remarkable description of Maori 
life and manners of past times." 

T-Ufc. Various Acts relating to protective works passed, commencing with 
No. 42, 1882. An Act consolidating the laws relating to the constitution of 
Eiver Boards, and the construction of Eiver Works, 1884, No. 49. 

403. Roads and Bridges Construction, Acts were passed making 
provision for the aid of. No. 42, section 34 and part section 10 repealed ; 

1883, No. 41 ; 1884, local, No. 24, section 6. 

404. Property Assessment, 1879, No. 17 ; 1880, No. 45; 1881, No. 38. 
Property tax, imposing, 1884, No. 40. 

405. Eoad Boards and Eoad Districts. General provisions relating to 
the constitution of Eoad Districts, and the powers of Eoad Boards, 1882, 
No. 43, sections 32, 33, 37, 73, part section 29 repealed ; 1883, No. 34 ; 

1884, No. 37. 

406. Scientific Societies may become incorporated, or the trustees 
thereof, by filing memorial in Supreme Court, 1884, No. 26. 

407. 1884, December 1. The Hon. W. Swainson died. He was the first 
Attorney-General for New Zealand; author of "New Zealand and its 
Constitutions, &c.," and " New Zealand and the War," London, 1862. 

408. 1885, June 12. The Hon. John Sheehan, M.H.E., late Native 
Minister, died at Napier, aged 40. He was New Zealand bom, and raised 
himself by his talents to the important office of Native Minister during Sir 
George Grey's Government, 1877 to 1879. 

409. 1885, August 1. New Zealand Industrial Exhibition opened in 
Wellington, by His Excellency Major-General Sir W. F. D. Jervois, 
G.C.M.G., C.B., E.E., Governor. The Industrial Exhibition of 1885 was 
first proposed by the Colonial Treasurer (the Hon. Sir Julius Vogel, K.C.M.G.) 
in his financial statement, delivered on the 16th September, 1884. His 
Excellency the Governor, and Sir Julius Vogel addressed the crowded 
audience, and the Governor declared the Exhibition opened. (See J. H. 
Wallace's History of New Zealand, synopsis.) 

410. October 31. The Industrial Exhibition, which had been a great 
success, was closed. His Excellency the Governor and the Honourable 
(now Sir) Eobert Stout, Premier, addressed the crowded audience, and the 
Governor declared the Exhibition closed. (See J. H. Wallace's History 
of New Zealand, synopsis.) 



51 

411. November 29. The foundation stone of the first woollen factory in 
the North Island, laid at Petone, Wellington, by the Hon. (now Sir) Eobert 
Stout, K.C.M.G., M.H.E., Premier of the Colony. 

411 A. The Woollen Manufactories of the Colony : " There is no industry 
in New Zealand of which the colonists are prouder than the woollen 
manufactories, and they undoubtedly merit the estimation in which they are 
held, whether as regards the success they have achieved, or the excellence of 
the products. Four mills have been in active operation for some years 
three in the vicinity of Dunedin, and one at Kaiapoi, near Christchurch. 
Another is just beginning work at Oamaru, and two are in course of erection, 
or about to be erected at Ashbuiion and Wellington (411). A small carpet 
factory of seven looms has also been recently established at Woolston, near 
Christchurch." (See the Industries of New Zealand, by W. N. Blair, M. 
Inst., C.E., Dunedin, 1884, p. 18.) 

411 B. Bryce v. Kusden : action in the Queen's Bench for libel, London, 
March 4, 1886. The Hon. John Bryce, M.H.E. (formerly Native 
Minister) commenced an action for libel, contained in A History of New 
Zealand, 3 vols., by Or. W. Eusden, published by Messrs. Chapman and 
Hall, London, 1883. The libels contained in the book not only reflected 
upon the character of Mr. Bryce, but upon the conduct of the colonists 
generally towards the natives. The trial excited general interest, and lasted 
several days. The jury returned a verdict for Mr. Bryce; damages, 5000. 
(See J. H. Wallace's History of New Zealand, synopsis.) 

41 1C- The Indian and Colonial Exhibition. The opening of the Indian 
and Colonial Exhibition, London, by Her Majesty the Queen in person, 
May 4, 1886, was notified by telegram, and a special Gazette issued from the 
Premier's office, Wellington, May 5, 1886. His Excellency the Governor 
received a telegram from His Eoyal Highness the Prince of Wales, forwarding 
proceedings of opening ceremony of Colonial and Indian Exhibition, con- 
taining address by His Eoyal Highness the Executive President to Her 
Majesty the Queen on the occasion of the opening of the Exhibition, the 
Queen's speech, the Ode, by Lord Tennyson, Poet Laureate : 

Welcome, welcome with one voice ! 
In your welfare we rejoice, 
Sons and brothers that have sent, 
From isle and cape and continent, 
Produce of your field and flood, 
Mount and mine and primal wood ; 
Works of subtle brain and hand, 
Splendours of the morning land : 
Gifts from every British zone. 
Britons, hold your own ! 

May we find as ages run, 
The mother featured in the son ; 
And may yours for ever be 
That old strength and constancy 
Which has made your mother great 
In our ancient Island State ; 
And wherever her flag may fly, 
Glorying between sea and sky, 
Making the might of Britain known. 
Britons, hold your own ! 



52 

Britain fought her sons of yore. 
Britain failed, and never more, 
Careless of our growing kin, 
Shall we sin our father's sin, 
Men that in a narrower day 
Unprophetic rulers they 
Drove from out the mother's nest- 
That young eagle of the West, 
To forage for herself alone. 
Britons, hold your own 

Sharers of our glorious past, 

Brothers, must we part at last ? 

Shall not we, though cold and ill, 

Cleave to one another still ? 

Britain's myriad voices call, 

Sons, be welded, each and all 

Into one Imperial whole ; 

One with Britain heart and soul. 

One life, onp flag, one fleet, one throne. 

Britons, hold your own, 

And God guard all ! 

41 1 U. Telegram from His Excellency the Governor to the Prince of 
Wales: "His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, London The Governor 
and Government of New Zealand, on behalf of the colony, acknowlege with 
respectful thanks receipt of telegram. They heartily congratulate your 
Eoyal Highness on opening Exhibition, success of which so greatly due to 
your gracious exertions. Special Gazette will be issued forthwith." 

41 IE. Telegram from the Honorable (now Sir) Robert Stout, Premier, to 
Her Majesty the Queen: "Her Majesty the Queen The Governor and 
Government of New Zealand, on behalf of the colony, most humbly tender 
to your Majesty their respectful thanks for great honour conferred on 
colonies by your Majesty opening Exhibition. ROBERT STOUT, Premier." 

411 F. A birthday presentation to Sir George Grey, K.O.B., D.C.L., 
M.H.R., &c., Kawau, formerly Governor of South Australia, New Zealand, 
Cape of Good Hope, and New Zealand (second time), Superintendent of the 
Province of Auckland, Premier of the colony of New Zealand, and at present 
M.H.R. for Auckland City East, &c., on the attainment of his seventy- 
fourth birthday, April 14, 1886, signed by 12,460 adults, exclusive of Maoris. 
The presentation was made in the Opera House, Auckland, in the presence 
of an immense audience of citizens and the leading men of the colony. 

4116. Volcanic disturbance in the early part of June, 1886. During the 
night of Wednesday, June 9, and early in the morning of Thursday, June 
10, loud reports were heard over a large portion of the colony, extending 
from Auckland in the north to Blenheim in the south. Mount Tarawera, 
close to Rotomahana, became suddenly an active volcano, belching out fire 
and lava to a great height, overwhelming Wairoa and numerous villages, 
and causing considerable loss of life and destruction of property, both 
European and native. The whole surrounding country was for some time 
enveloped in darkness ; violent shocks of earthquake added to the great 
excitement caused by the violence of the volcanic eruptions. (See Reports 
by Dr. Hector, Professor Hutton, Professor Brown, and Mr. S. Percy Smith, 
Assistant Surveyor-General, Auckland.) 



53 
GOVERNMENT. 

When the Colony was founded, there was in it an aboriginal race, 
roughly estimated at about 80,000 ; more than nine-tenths resided in the 
Northern Island. The Maoris, as the race was called, had been recognised 
by the British Government as an independent nation, and had been presented 
by it with a national flag. 

413. British sovereignty was obtained by discovery and treaty (the Treaty 
of Waitangi). The fac-simile of the original treaty, with native signatures 
and historical events connected with the Treaty, are given in J. H. Wallace's 
Early History of New Zealand. 

4 1 *TI The constitution was that of Crown Colonies. The Governor, 
except in so far as he was controlled by the Imperial Government, was 
almost despotic. 

4 1 5. The Executive Council was composed of the Governor, and three 
Government officers. The Legislative Council consisted of the Executive 
Council and of three men who did not hold office, but who were nominated 
by the Governor. 

4- ID. In 1847, the Imperial Government issued a now charter. The 
Colony was divided into two provinces (New Ulster and New Munster), 
Lieutenant- Governors appointed, and a Goveruor-in- Chief, a Colonial 
Parliament created with a Eepresentative Chamber. This charter was 
suspended. 

417. In 1853 before the suspension ended the New Zealand Con- 
stitution Act (passed 30th June, 1852) came into force, giving representative 
government, viz., the Governor, a Legislative Council composed of members 
nominated by the Crown for life, and a House of Representatives elected by 
the people for five years, but by an Act passed in 1879, the term was limited 
to three years. 

418. The Colony was divided into provinces, with an elective Super- 
intendent, and an elective Provincial Council for each province, elected for 
four years. 

419. In 1875, a Colonial Act was passed, abolishing the whole provincial 
system (came into operation 1876), and in the following year another Act 
was passed making provision for the division of the Colony into counties. 

420. The Colony is divided into sixty-three counties ; each county 
sub-divided into ridings. The governing body is an elective Council, and an 
elective chairman. There are also Road Boards, and in the towns, Municipal 
Councils, Central and Local Boards of Health, Harbour Boards, &c. 

421. Until the abolition of provincial institutions in 1876, each province 
conducted its own educational system. In 1877, the Education Act, for the 
whole Colony, was passed. The administration of the Act is almost wholly 
vested in District Boards, elected by School Committees within each district. 

422. The education is provided, and is made compulsory for children 
between the ages of seven and thirteen. That is called primary education. 
Secondary, or High Schools, are under Boards of Governors, constituted by 
special Acts. Li the secondary schools fees are charged for instruction. 
(See full details and returns in Official Hand Book of Now Zealand, edited 
by the Agent-General, London, 1883. 



54 

423. There are also four Normal Schools at Auckland, Wellington, 
Christchurch, and Dunedin, for training teachers. Native village schools. 
There are also in the Colony, maintained or aided by the Government, 
industrial schools, and orphanages, and a deaf and dumb institution. 

424-1 The University of New Zealand is a Colonial Institution, and is 
empowered by Royal charter to confer degrees. Its work is that of exami- 
nation and of granting degrees. It has also established several scholarships. 
The Chancellor of the University furnishes an annual report. The Senate 
holds periodical meetings for conducting all business connected with the 
University, under " The University Act, 1874." 

42b. Taxation. Ordinary taxation is raised from customs ; a gold duty 
on gold produced in, and exported from the Colony ; Customs are indirect 
taxation. Stamps, other than postage stamps and for fees, and Beer Duty, 
which is an excise, and property tax, are direct taxation. Receipts for 
services rendered, viz., railways, postages, telegraphs, fees in judicial, 
registration, and other public departments. The territorial revenue is raised 
from land sales, and from depasturing licenses, rents, &c. The Customs are 
a tariff of duties at different rates on imported articles enumerated therein. 
" The Property Assessment Act, 1879 " as amended by an Act of 1880, and 
1881, regulates the assessment of all real and personal property for the 
purpose of taxation. (See official and parliamentary returns, Official Hand 
Book of New Zealand, by the Agent- General, 1883, Returns published in the 
Gazette, Financial Statements, &c., &c.) 



A BRIEF SKETCH OF PIONEERS OF CIVILIZATION. 

426. An important era in the history of New Zealand, is that of the 
pioneers of civilization, and the introduction of Christianity and letters into 
the country. 

427. True progressive civilization was planted by the crews of the early 
ships, and by the sealers, whalers, and Pakeha Maoris. These men sprang 
from various classes ; a few were Frenchmen, but the majority were 
Englishmen and Americans. 

42 8 1 The early navigators were the first to arrive, and the traders and 
whalers followed in their track. The sealers formed the next arrival. 
These men commenced their intercourse with the natives in the southern 
parts of the Middle Island, about the beginning of the century, being 
landed from whale ships for the purpose of killing the seals, then very 
numerous all round the coast. 

429. Bay whaling in New Zealand was established in 1827, at Pre- 
servation, near the south end of the Middle Island ; also Banks' Peninsula, 
Queen Charlotte's Sound, Cloudy Bay, the Island of Kapiti, and other places 
in Cook's Strait, and in Poverty Bay, Bay of Plenty, and Taranaki, in the 
North Island. (See J. H. Wallace's Early History of New Zealand, 
Parliamentary Papers, and numerous works on New Zealand.) 



55 

430. The natives engaged themselves to the whalers and sealers, and as 
their European masters were distinguished by a manly love of fair play, 
they imbued our imitative race with the more prominent features of their 
own character. To the whalers and sealers we are chiefly indebted for our 
first knowledge of the available harbours of the coast. 

431. The Missionaries also greatly improved the native character by 
checking vice, and giving instruction in Christian worship. (A brief sketch 
of the introduction of Christianity is given ; see also J. H. Wallace's Early 
History of New Zealand.) 

432. "Sprung from the same class of men as the whalers, were the 
Pakeha Maoris, a term which being interpreted, signifies " Strangers turned 
into natives." They were the next pioneers of civilization, and their 
influence was exerted on the natives living in the North Island." (Thomson; 
J. H. Wallace's Early History of New Zealand.) 



SPIETTUAL CONQUEST OF THE NEW ZEALANDERS. 

433. The spiritual conquest of the New Zealanders was accomplished by 
pioneers, who were actuated with widely different motives from the "Pioneers 
of Civilization." 

434. "It was towards the end of the eighteenth century that the 
physical and moral condition of the South Sea Islanders first attracted the 
attention of the people of Great Britain, and it was in 1795 that a missionary 
society was formed in England, to send forth the Word of Life. 

" Send it to where, expanded wide, 
The South Sea rolls its farthest tide ; 
To every island's distant shore, 
Make known the Saviour's grace and power." 

435. " The year 1796 will be ever memorable in the annals of our faith 
as that in which the "Duff" sailed out of the river Thames with thirty 
missionaries, for the purpose of converting the people of Tahiti, Murguesas, 
and the Tonga or Friendly Islands, to Christianity. (See A Narrative of 
Missionary Enterprises in the South Sea Islands, by the Rev. John Williams, 
of the London Missionary Society, London, 1840.) 

436. "The honour of carrying the Gospel of Peace to the warlike Maoris 
is due to the late Rev. Samuel Ma radon. He was then senior chaplain of the 
colony of New South Wales; born at Horsforth, near Leeds, in 1764." 
(The Rev. Jas. Buller's Forty Years in New Zealand, London, 1878.) 

437. The Rev. S. Marsden had acted as colonial agent for the London 
Missionary Society. He persuaded the Church of England Missionary 
Society to turn their attention to New Zealand. After an absence of 
fourteen years, he visited England. On his return voyage, in 1809, he was 
accompanied by Messrs. Hall and King, who were soon followed by Mr. 
Kendall, and, in 1815, by the Rev. John Butler, the first clerical missionary. 



438. " On the 28th November, 1814, the schooner "Active" left Sydney 
for New Zealand with the Rev. S. Marsden, his friend Mr. Liddiard Nicholas, 
and the missionaries Kendal, Hall, and King with their wives and 
families, and a party of eight New Zealanders." (Christianity Among the 
New Zealanders, Bishop of Waiapu, London, 1867, p. 10.) 

439. " They reached the Bay of Islands December 22, and anchored off 
Rangihora, which was the village over which Ruatara was chief, who was 
on friendly terms with Mr. Marsden. The next day (the Sabbath) about 
ten o'clock Mr. Marsden prepared to go on shore to publish for the first time 
the glad tidings of the Gospel. I preached from Luke ii. 10 : ' Behold, I 
bring you glad tidings of great joy.' " (Bishop of Waiapu, pp. 12 and 13.) 

440. In 1819, a station was formed at the Kirikiri. In 1822, the Rev. 
Mr. Leigh, from the Wesleyan Missionary Society, and two clergymen, 
established themselves at Wangaroa, on the East Coast. 

441 . Mission Stations were formed at Pahia, in the Bay of Islands, in 
1823 : at Waimate in 1830, and at Kaitaia in 1834. In 1827, the Wesleyan 
missionaries fled from Wangaroa in terror of their lives. In 1832, the 
church mission station was moved from Ranerihu to Te Puna. 

441 A. Mr. (now the Rev.) William Colenso, of Napier, superintended the 
printing department at the mission station, Pahia, Bay of Islands. He set 
the type and printed, in 1835, the first English book printed in New 
Zealand : Report of the Formation and Establishment of the New Zealand 
Temperance Society. (See J. H. Wallace's Early History of New Zealand 
for a copy of this historical literary curiosity.) 

442. Mission stations were also founded in 1834 on the Thames and 
Waipa rivers; in 1835, at Tauranga, in the Bay of Plenty; at Rotorua, in 
the interior, and at Kawhia and Whaingaroa, on the West Coast. In 1839, 
they penetrated to Cook Strait and the Middle Island, 

443. In the year 1836, Pope Gregory XVI. appointed J. B. F. 
Pompallier Roman Catholic Bishop of New Zealand. 

444. In 1 838, the bishop arrived with several priests, and took up his abode 
in Kororareka, and since that period stations have been formed all over the 
islands by the three missionary bodies, viz. , Church of England, Wesleyan, 
and Catholic. 

445. Henry Williams. "It was Mr. Marsden's fourth visit to New 
Zealand, in August, 1823; he came in the ship 'Brompton.' The mission 
party that he brought with him included not only Messrs. Turner and 
Hobbs, for the Wesleyan mission at Wangaroa, but also the Rev. H. 
Williams, who began the formation of a new station at Pahia, in the Bay of 
Islands. In later years he was better known as the Rev. Archdeacon 
H. Williams." (Rev. J. Buller's Forty Years in New Zealand, p. 278.) 

446 t "In 1826, he was joined by his brother William, who had been 
trained to the medical profession. He translated the first version of the New 
Testament into Maori ; was consecrated Bishop of Waiapu. The natives had 
always called him by the familiar name of Parata (brother), but afterwards 
it was exchanged for that of Piliopa (bishop)." (Rev. Jas. Buller's Forty 
Years in New Zealand, p. 279.) 



57 

GOVERNORS. 

447. Succession of Governors of New Zealand and the dates on which 
they assumed and retired from the Government. (From the Official Hand 
Book of New Zealand by the Agent- General.) 



Names. 


From. 


To. 


Captain William Hobson, R.N. 


Jan. '40 


10 Sept. '42 


N.B. Proclamation of British Sovereignty by Captain Hobson 






in January, 1840, and New Zealand a Dependency of the colony 






of New South Wales until 3rd May, 1841, at which date it was 






proclaimed a separate colony. From January, 1840, to May, 






1841, Captain Hobson was Lieutenant-Governor of New Zealand 






under Sir George Gipps, Governor of New South Wales, and from 






May, 1841, Governor of New Zealand, the seat of Government 






being at Auckland, where he died in September, 1842. From the 






time of Governor Hobson's death in September, 1842, until the 






arrival of Governor Fitzroy in December, 1843, the Government 






was carried on by the Colonial Secretary, Lieutenant Shortland. 






Lieutenant Shortland (Administrator) 


10 Sept. '42 


26 Dec. '43 


Captain Robert Fitzroy, R.N. 


26 Dec. '43 


17 Nov. '45 


Captain Grey (became Sir George Grey, K.C.B., in 1848) 

N.B. Captain Grey held the commission as Lieutenant- 


18 Nov. '45 


31 Dec. '53 


Governor of the colony until the ist January, 1848, when he was 
sworn in as Governor-m-Chief over the Islands of New Zealand, 






and as Governor of the Province of New Ulster and Governor of 






the Province of New Munster. After the passing of the New 






Zealand Constitution Act, Sir George Grey was, on the i3th 






September, 1852, appointed Governor of the colony, the duties of 






which he assumed on the 7th March. 1853. In August, 1847, Mr, 






E. J. Eyre was appointed Lieutenant-Governor of New Munster ; 






he was sworn in 28th January, 1848. On 3rd January, 1848, 






Major-General George Dean Pitt was appointed Lieutenant- 






Governor of New Ulster ; he was sworn in i4th February, 1848 ; 






died 8th January, 1851 ; and was succeeded as 'Lieutenant- 






Governor by Lieutenant-Colonel Wynyard, appointed i4th April, 






1851 ; sworn in 26th April, 1851. The duties of Lieutenant- 






Governor ceased on the assumption by Sir George Grey of his 






office of Governor on tht 7th March, 1853. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Robert Henry Wynyard, C.B. (Ad- 






ministrator) 


3 Jan. '54 


6 Sept. '55 


Colonel Sir Thomas Gore Brown, K.C.M.G., C.B. 


6 Sept. '55 


2 Oct. '61 


Sir George Grey, K.C.B. j Administrator .. 
( Governor . . . . 


3 Oct. '61 
4 Dec. '61 


5 Feb. '68 


Sir George Fergueon Bowen, G.C.M.G. 


5 Feb. '68 


19 Mar. '73 


Sir George Alfred Arney, Chief Justice (Administrator) 


21 Mar. '73 


14 June '73 


Sir James Fergusson, Baronet, P.O. 


14 June '73 


3 Dec. '74 


The Marquis of Normanby, P.C. { %*** 1 1 


3 Dec. '74 
9 Jan. '75 


21 Feb. '79 


Sir James Prendergast, Chief Justice (Administrator) . . 


21 Feb. '79 


27 Mar. '79 


Sir Hercules George Robert Robinson, 






ir n P vr n / Administrator . . 


27 Mar. '79 




K - G - C - M --( Governor 


17April,'79 


8 Sept. '80 


Sir James Prendergast, Chief Justice (Administrator) . . 


9 Sept. '80 


29 Nov. '80 


Sir Arthur Hamilton Gordon, K.G.C.M.G. 


29 Nov. '80 


24 June '82 


Sir James Prendergast, Chief Justice (Administrator) . . 


24 June '82 


20 Jan. '83 


Major-General Sir W. F. D. Jervois, G.C.M.G., C.B., R.E. 


20 Jan. 83 











58 
PEEMIEES. 

448 List of Premiers of New Zealand, with Dates of their Assumption 
of and Retirement from Office. (From the Official Hand Book of New 
Zealand, by the Agent- General.) 



Name ef Premier. 


Date of Assumption 
of Office. 


Date of Retirement 
from Office. 


Henry Sewell 


7 May, 1856 


20 May, 1856 


William Fox 


20 May, 1856 


2 June, 1856 


Edward William Stafford 


2 June, 1856 


12 July, 1861 


William Fox 


12 July, 1861 


6 August, 1862 


Alfred Domett 


6 August, 1862 


30 October, 1863 


Frederick Whitaker 


30 October, 1863 


24 November, 1864 


Frederick Aloysius Weld 


24 November, 1864 


16 October, 1865 


Edward William Stafford 


16 October, 1865 


28 June, 1869 


William Fox 


28 June, 1869 


10 September, 1872 


Edward William Stafford 


10 September, 1872 


11 October, 1872 


George M. Waterhouse . . 


11 October, 1872 


3 March, 1873 


William Fox 


3 March, 1873 


8 April, 1873 


Julius Vogel 


8 April, 1873 


6 July, 1875 


Daniel Pollen 


6 July, 1875 


15 February, 1876 


Julius Vogel 


15 February, 1876 


1 September, 1876 


Harry Albert Atkinson . . 


1 September, 1876 


13 September, 1876 


Harry Albert Atkinson . . 


13 September, 1876 


13 October, 1877 


George Grey 


13 October, 1877 


8 October, 1879 


John Hall 


8 October, 1879 


21 April, 1882 


Frederick Whitaker 


21 April, 1882 


September, 1883 


Harry Albert Atkinson . . 


22 September, 1883 


15 August, 1885 


Eobert Stout . . 


16 August, 1885 


27 August, 1885 


Harry Albert Atkinson . . 


" 28 August, 1885 


.2 September, 1885 


Kobert Stout 


3 September, 1885 





448A. JUDGES OP SUPEEME COUET. 

Chief Justice: Sir James Prendergast, K.C.M.G. 

Puisne Judge : C. W. Richmond, Wellington, Nelson and Westland. 

Puisne Judge : A. J. Johnston, Canterbury and Westland. 

Puisne Judge : T. B. Gillies, Auckland. 

Puisne Judge : J. S. Williams, Otago. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

449 Wool is, undoubtedly, the most important production of New 
Zealand, its value in export being more than treble that of gold. 

449 A. " "Wool." From the earliest times to the reign of Queen Eliza- 
beth the wool of Great Britain was not only superior to that of Spain, but 
accounted the finest in the universe ; and even in the times of the Eomana 



69 

a manufacture of woollen cloths was established at Winchester for the use 
of the emperors. Anderson. In later times wool was manufactured in 
England, and is mentioned 1185, but not in any quantity until 1331, when 
the weaving of it was introduced by John Kernpe and other artizans from 
Flanders. This was the real origin of our now unrivalled manufactures, 6. 
Edward III., 1331 :Rymer's Fcedera. Haydn, p. 868. 

4uU. Animal life. " Until the systematic colonization of the islands, 
New Zealand was very destitute of terrestrial or animal life suitable to the 
wants of civilized man ; the only animals being a small rat, a dog (which 
had probably been introduced since the islands were peopled by the present 
race) and pigs, the produce of some animals left by Captain Cook and the 
navigators that succeeded him, through the agency of the early missionaries, 
and by whaling ships many useful animals and plants were then introduced." 
In more recent years all kinds of domestic animals, poultry, game, and all 
kinds of smaller birds have been introduced. The rivers also of New Zealand, 
which formerly produced only the eel and a few small salmonoid fishes of 
little value, are gradually being stocked with salmon and trout and other 
fish. (Hand Book of New Zealand by James Hector, M.D., C.M.G., F.E.S., 
Director of the Geological Survey, Wellington 1886, p. 25.) 

For a detailed account of the birds, see Manual of the Birds of New Zea- 
land, by Walter L. Buller, C.M.G., Sc.D., F.K.S., New Zealand 1882. 

451. Sheep, cattle and horses. There are now in New Zealand about 
fourteen million sheep, seven hundred thousand cattle, and one hundred and 
sixty thousand horses. 

452. Whaling. New Zealand is the chief centre of the southern whale 
fisheries, and at certain seasons the less frequented harbours are visited by 
whalers for the purpose of refitting and carrying on shore-fishing and 
barrelling their oil. 

453. Fisheries. "The New Zealand fishes resemble those which are 
found on the coast between Madeira and the Bay of Biscay, more than they 
do those which are caught about the north of Scotland." Their useful 
variety bears favourable comparison with fish in British seas, Dr Hector. 
(See a detailed account of the edible fishes of New Zealand, illustrated by 
wood cuts. By Dr. Hector.) In 1885, an act entitled "the Fisheries 
Encouragement Act, 1885" was passed, offering bonuses for the establish- 
ment of fish- canning and curing industries. 

454. Minerals. New Zealand is rich in mineral wealth gold, silver, 
coal, oil shales and oil, iron, copper, lead, tin and zink, platinum, mercury, 
nickel, cobalt, antimony, chrome, manganese. Clays of all kinds are very 
plentiful throughout New Zealand, and there seems to be a variety for every 
purpose, from common bricks and tiles to chinaware and tobacco pipes. 
Building stone, marble, slate, limestone, &c. Among the minor non-metallic 
minerals used in manufactures and the arts, which have been found in New 
Zealand, are plumbago, sulphur, gypsum, magnesia, aluni, flint, felspar, 
asbestos, meershaum and talc. (Hand Book of New Zealand, Jas. Iloetor, 
M.D., C.M.G., F.H.S. 1880.) (industries of Now Zealand by W. N. Blair, 
M. lust., C E. 1884.) 

455. Vegetation. Timber and forest trues, strength of New Zealand 
timber, extent of forest land, bark for tanning and dyeing, Phormium Tenax 
(the New Zealand hemp.) Sco Dr. Hector's 11 ami Book, 1880; pagos 12 
to 16. 



60 



456. Agriculture. Agriculture, classification of geological subsoil, 
varieties of soil, northern district, north-western district, north-eastern 
district, south-western district, progress of agriculture. See Dr. Hector's 
Hand Book, 1886 ; pages 17 to 20. 

457. Pastoral. "The general suitability of the country for grazing 
purposes, and the production of a superior class of wool, caused the attention 
of the first settlers to be given to pastoral pursuits." 

458. Gaslights. The inflammable aeriform fluid, carburetted hydrogen, 
evolved by the combustion of coal, was described by Dr. Clayton in 1739. 
Application of coal gas to the purposes of illumination tried by Mr. Murdoch, 
in Cornwall, 1792. Gas-lights introduced at Boulton and Watt's foundry in 
Birmingham, 1798. Gas-lights introduced in London, at Golden lane, 16th 
August, 1807; Pall Mall, 1809; generally throughout London 1814-20, 
(Haydn's Dictionary of Dates, p 354.) All the large towns in New Zealand 
are now lighted with gas, and new gas companies are constantly being 
formed. 

459. Industries. " The manufactories and industrial works of New 
Zealand in 1881 were 1,643, against 1,271 in 1878. Since 1878 fellmongery, 
tanning, and currying establishments increased from 100 to 119; boiling- 
down and meat-preserving works, from 32 to 40 ; saw-mills, from 204 to 
223 ; iron foundries, from 29 to 35 ; agricultural implement factories, from 
8 to 23 ; furniture factories, from 12 to 45 ; sail factories, from 1 to 13 ; bacon 
and fish-curing factories, from 8 to 34. The increase in the number of 
woollen mills from 3 in 1878 to 4 in 1881. (See paragraphs 411 and 4llA.) 

460. The number of manufactories devoted to articles of clothing increased 
from 7 in 1874 to 24 in 1878 and 54 in 1881. There were 54 companies 
registered in 1884 under the " Companies Act 1882." Twelve of these are 
noticeable as bearing upon the development of local industries, are as 
follow : Dairy produce and bacon factories, 7 ; tobacco growing and manu- 
facturing company, 1 ; candle and soap manufacturing companies, 2 ; copper 
mining companies, 2. (Hand Book of New Zealand by Dr. Hector, 1886, 
pp. 77-78.) 



NOTE. It may appear to some readers that reference to public Acts 
passed by the Legislature without any explanation, is unnecessary, and an 
mcumbrance to the book ; as, however, the Acts referred to form an 
important portion of the history of the progress of the colony, the mention 
of them, in their chronological order, will be found to be both useful and 
instructive. 



INDEX. 

The Figures denote the number of the paragraph. 

A, 

Area of New Zealand, 1, 2 

" Agnes" brig, stranded 1816, 59 

Aberdeen, Lord, orders the New Zealander's flag to be respected, 70 

" Aurora," arrival of, at Port Nicholson, January 22, 1840, 85 

" Adelaide," arrival of, 85 

Akaroa, arrival of French settlers at, 93 

Auckland, the seat of Government, 94 

Auckland, arrival of emigrants, "Duchess of Argyle" and "Jane Gifford," 115, 

gold discovered, 205 

Acts, Governor Fitzroy's disallowed, 145 

Association, of Lay Members of the Free Church of Scotland, 173 
"Alcemine," French frigate, loss of, 197 
Albert, Prince, death of, 256 
Art Exhibition, Christchurch, 332 
Auckland and Onehunga railway opened, 351 
Auckland Institute, opened, 358 
Auckland Islands, 391 

Arney, Sir G. A., administrator, 350A, 447, death of, 400 
Atkinson, Harry Albert, premier, 448 
Agricultural, 456 
Animal life, 450 

B. 

Bruce, George, first white man who lived among natives, 50 

Boyd, massacre of crew and passengers, 53 

Barbarism, scenes of, 55 

Busby, James, first British resident in New Zealand, 66, arrival of, 67 

Bourke, Sir Richard, Governor of New South Wales, sends the New Zealanders a 

national flag, 70 

Bay of Islands, a resort for whalers, 76, seat of Mission stations, 77 
Baring, W. Francis, introduced a bill into Parliament, opposed and thrown out, 79 
Boundaries of New South Wales extended to N.Z., 86 

Britannia, name first given to the N.Z. Coy. Settlement at Port Nicholson, 95 
Birthday of the Colony, lOOu 
" Beagle," H.M.S., 119 
Browne, Colonel Gore, C.B., successor to Sir George Grey, arrived at Auckland, 222, 

visits the provinces, 224, purchases Waitara, 231, paid Teira 200, 235, 

recalled, 238, 'J39, arranged a truce with William Thompson, 242, term of 

office, 447. 

Burns, Dr., (of Otago) died 346u 
Bishoprics, Christchurch, Nelson, Wellington, Waiapu, 232 



62 

B, Continued. 

Bishop of New Zealand protests against Taranaki war, 240 

Bowen, Sir George, appointed to succeed Sir George Grey, 312, term of office, 447 

Birth and name of New Zealand, 27, 37A 

Bell, Sir F. D., K.C.M.G., appointed Agent-General, 381, June 1886, created C.B. 

Bryce v. Busden, damages for plaintiff 5000, 41lB 

Butler, Bev. Jno., first clerical missionary, 437 

Book, the first printed in New Zealand, 44lA 

c. 

Counties, names of, 5, 6 

Cook, Captain James, began his discovery, 12, sailed in the " Endeavour," 3lA, 32, 
arrived at Tahiti, 32, Transit of Venus observed, 32, discovers Society 
Islands, 34, first sights New Zealand, 34, at Bay of Turanga, 34, Mercury 
Bay, 34, takes possession of New Zealand, 35, Ships Cove, 36, leaves for 
England, 37, original chart referred to, 37, second visit, 41, third visit, 42, 
fourth visit, 43, fifth and. last visit, 44, introduction of useful plants and 
animals, 45, old ship "Discovery," 45A, death of, 374 

Colonial Legislature, 23 

Chronological History, 24 

Colonization of New Zealand, the " Tory," 80 

" Cuba," surveying ship, 85 

Committee of the House of Commons, 79 

Chaffers, Captain, B.N., Commander of the " Tory," 82 

Colonial office.surprised at action of New Zealand Company, 86 

Constitution of the Colony, 87, Colony created, 87 

Churchill, Captain Lord J., H.M.S. " Druid," 88 

" Comte de Paris," a French emigrant ship, at Akaroa, 93 

Civil List, the first, 103 

Cook's Strait settlers, prepare for war (1845) 137 

Charter of 1846, granting a Constitution, 167 

Charter suspended for five years, 170 

Cargill, Captain "William, leader of Otago settlers, 173, death of, 237 

Church of England, settlement formed, 176 

Crozet, Captain, inflicts terrible punishment on natives, 40 

Church mission of 1814, 55 

Comet, the most brilliant seen in ancient or modern times, 120, 392 

Convicts, proposed to be sent to New Zealand, 180 

Canterbury settlement, formation, 190 

Canterbury colonists, dinner at Gravesend, 193, at St. Paul's, 194 

Chapman, the Hon H. S., death of, 393A 

Constitution Act, 201, 202, 203, 204 

Constitution Act promulgated, 207 

Church of England Constitution, 209 

Christchurch a new Bishopric, 225 

Constitution Amendment Act, 227 

Cameron, Major-General, Sir Duncan, C.B., sent from Home to finish the war ; 
succeeds General Pratt ; arrived at Auckland t 242 ; employs troops in 
road-making, 253 ; leaves Taranaki for Waikato, 261 ; hostilities, 262 ; 
military force, 265 ; defeats Maoris, 274 

Clifford, Mr. (Sir Charles), first Speaker of the General Assembly, 220 

Cook Strait cable laid, 298, 307 

Chute, Major-General, subdues the Hau Haus, 303 

Christchurch and Dunedin Railway opened by the Marquis of Normanby 371 

Colonial and Indian Exhibition openei in London (May 4th 1886), 411c 

Colenso, Bev. W., printed first book in New Zealand, 44U 



63 

D, 

Discovery of New Zealand, 25 

Distance of earth from the sun, 33 

De Surville, 39 ; visits Doubtless Bay 39 

De Entrecasteaux, Admiral, 48 

Durham, Lord, head of New Zealand Association 1837, 79 ; present at dejeune on 

departure of " Troy," 80; the promoter of colonization, 81 ; Governor of 

New Zealand Company, ,82 

Dieffenbach, Dr. Ernest, naturalist to New Zealand Company, sails in " Tory," 82 
Dorset, John, surgeon to New Zealand Company, sails in " Tory," 82 
Dieffenbach, Dr., ascends Mount Egmont, 98A 
Devon, the Earl of, at fete, Plymouth, 106 
Diocese, New Zealand created an independent, 108 
Depressed state of the colony, 1843, 123 
Despard, Colonel, repulsed at Oheawai, 140 
Debate in the House of Commons on New Zealand affairs, 142 
Deferred Payment Lands Act, 336 
Domett, Alfred, premier, 448 



E. 

Electors' qualification, 22 

European discoverers of New Zealand, 26 

" Endeavour," a barque fitted out for Lieut. Cook, 31 

Epuni, the Ngatiawa chief at Petone, a valuable ally of the British, 159 

Eyre, Edward John, Lieutenant-Governor, 168 ; term of office, 447 

Earthquake of 1848, 178 ; 1855, 223 

Egmont, Mount, ascent of, 98A 

Eaehinomawe, North Island, 37A 

Exhibition (1885), Dunedin, 291 ; closed, 296 

Evans, G. S., D.C.L., an eminent colonist, died, 322 

Edinburgh, Duke of, visits New Zealand, 337, 340 

Education Acts, 3P>6 ; general reference to, 421 to 424 

Exhibition, Christchurch, Joubert and Twopeny, 395 

Exhibition, Industrial, 1885, 409, 410 

F. 

Fresne, Marion de, visits Bay of Islands and is assasinated, 40 

Furneaux, Captain, joins Captain Cook, 41 

Franklin, Dr. Benjamin, 49 

Franklin, Sir John, a bronze statue at Hobart Town, 97 

Franklin, Lady, visits Port Nicholson in H.M.S. " Favorite," 1841, 97 

"Favorite," H.M.S., 97 

Fitzroy, Captain Robert, E.N., appointed Governor, 119 ; arrival of at Auckland, 
124 ; at Wellington, 125 ; Land proclamation, 126 ; attended a great feast 
near Auckland, 130; sends for troops, 133; troops arrive at Auckland, 
134 ; visits the Bay of Islands, 134 ; war declared, 137 ; recalled, 143 ; 
term of office, 447 

Flying Squadron arrives in New Zealand, 380 

Featherston, Dr., sails for England ; the first Agent-General, 341 ; died, 3(50 

Forest trees, planting of, 34(U 

Fergusson, Sir James, appointed Governor, 350 ; left New Zealand, 353 ; term of 
office, 447 

Frozen meat, first shipment of, 394 



64 

P Continued. 

French attempt to colonize New Zealand, 93 
Flagstaff, Bay of Islands, out down by Heki, 136 
Flax, New Zealand (phormium tenax), 182 
Forests (State), Act, 367 
Fox, William, premier, 448 
Fisheries, 453 

G, 

Government, 19, 20, 21 

George III. encouraged maritime discovery, 29 

George, a native, instigator of the " Boyd " massacre, 54 

Godrich, Lord, answer to chief's address, 67 

Guard, Mrs. (wrecked at Taranaki in " Harriet,") 69 

Glenelg, Lord, conveys His Majesty, William IV.'s wishes, 73 

Gipps', Sir George, proclamations, 90 

Grey, Captain (now Sir George), the Governor of South Australia, appointed Gover- 
nor, 144 ; proceeds to Bay of Islands, 146 ; military operations renewed, 
147 ; defeat of the natives, fall of Kuapekapeka, 148 ; has Te Rauparaha 
captured, 155 ; end of Southern campaign, 158 ; energetic measures of the 
Governor, 160 ; employs natives road-making, 161 ; proceeds to Wanganui, 
164 ; peace proclaimed, 166 ; created K.C.B., 171 ; Sir George and Lady 
Grey at Canterbury, 192 

Grey, Sir George, approaching departure of, 213 ; Lady Grey, 213 ; departure from 
Wellington, 216 ; departure from Auckland, 217, 218 

Grey, Sir George, Governor of Cape of Good Hope, supersedes Governor Browne, 
238, 239, 247, 248 ; gives up Waitara, 255 ; proposals of peace, 288 ; term 
of office, 447 ; birthday presentation, 41lE 

Gold discovered at California, 179 ; in Australia, 195 

Godley, J. R., leader of Canterbury colonists, arrived, 191 

Gold, discovery of, at Auckland, 205 ; Bendigo diggings, 206 

Gibbs, Captain of first commercial steamer, "Ann," 215 

General Assembly, first meeting of, 220 

Gold discovered at Mataura, 226 ; arrived at Dunedin, 241 

Gorst, Mr., expelled from Waikato, 260 

Gold discovered at Otago, 267 ; Hokitika and the Grey, 290 

Gate pah, repulse of British troops, 279 

Government, seat of, removed, 289 

Gold in great quantities, discovered at Molyneaux, 309 

Gordon, Sir A. Hamilton, Governor, 383, 447 

Government education and taxation, 412 to 425 

Governors of New Zealand, and the dates on which they assumed and retired from 
the Government, 447 

Gas, and gas companies, 458 

Gillies, T. B., Judge, 448A 

H. 

Hongi visits England, 61 ; presented to George III., 62 

Herd, Captain, attempts to colonize New Zealand, 64 

" Harriet," wreck of, 69 ; massacre of crew of, 69 

Hay, Mr., Under- Secretary of State, 72 

Hobson, Captain of H.M.S. " Rattlesnake," visits New Zealand, 75 

Hutt, Mr., M.P., present at a dejeune at Lovegroves, West India Dock Tavern, 

Blackwall, 80 
Heaphy, Mr. Charles, draughtsman to New Zealand Company, sails in "Tory," 82 



65 

|-| Continued. 

Hobson, Captain William, B.N., sailed for Sydney in H.M.8. "Druid," 88; 
arrived at the Bay of Islands, 88 ; calls a meeting of chiefs, 89 ; appointed 
Lieutenant-Governor, 90 ; obtains signatures to Treaty of Waitangi, 92 ; 
declares proceedings of Port Nicholson settlers " high treason," 95 ; pro- 
claims British sovereignty, 96 ; -appointed Governor and Commander-in- 
Chief, 102, 447 ; death of, 114 

Hanson, B. D. (afterwards Sir B. D.,) negotiates the purchase of the Chatham 
Islands, 100 

Heke, John the flagstaff, 131 ; flagstaff cut down, 132 ; proceeds to Kororareka 
with an armed party, 132 ; flagstaff cut down a second and third time, 
136 ; hostilities, 136 ; death of, 187 

Heki and Kawiti war ended (1846), 149 

Hutt campaign : after plunder of settlers, Colonel Hulme marched troops to the 
Hutt, 150 ; attack of natives on Lietenant Page, 152 ; second attack of 
natives on Captain Beed, 153 

Hawkes Bay, a new province, 233 

Hau Hau heresy, outbreak of, 277, 292, 293 

Hadfield, Archdeacon, appointed Bishop of Wellington, 333 

Hall, John, premier, 448 



Insurrection smouldering in the South (1845), 141 

Immigration and Public Works Acts 334 

Industrial Exhibition, Wellington, opened, 409 ; closed, 410 

Indian and Colonial Exhibition opened in London (May 1886), 41 Ic 

Industries, 459 

J. 

Jervois, Major General, S. W. F. D., Governor, 399, Industrial Exhibition, 409, 

telegram to the Prince of Wales, 41lA, 447 
Johnston, A. J., Judge, 448A 

K. 

Kendall, Mr. Thomas, first Magistrate at Bay of Islands, 56, 57 

Kororareka, 1837-8, 76, association formed, 78, destroyed by Heki and a war 

party, 136, inhabitants seek refuge in Auckland, 136 
King, William, and tribe migrate, 175 
King, proclaimed (Potatau) 230, died, 2S6 

King, Wiremu Kingi Whiti Bangitake, objects to sale of Waitara, 234 
King movement, History of, 245 
King, capitulation of, Ngarauwahia, 276 
King, interview with the Maori, 327, submission of 356 



La Perouses' voyage, 48 

Lambert, Captain, H.M.S. Alligator, 69 

" L'Aube," French frigate, at Akaroa, 93 

Legislative Council, first meeting, Auckland (1841) 101 

Liardet, Captain, B.N., agent for the New Plymouth Company, 109, death of, 257 

Land Beguliition* (1853) 210 

Legislative Council, first meeting under the constitution, 221 

Loan, of 1,000,000 granted by British Parliament, 282 

Loan Acts, for public works, 334 



66 

M. 

Mountains and plains, Sqpth Island, 7 

Mountains and plains, North Island, 8 

Maori race, 10, origin and history, 13, 14, physical character, 18, tradition, 26 

Maori members, House of Representatives, 22 

Municipal bodies, 23A 

Mercury Bay, 34, Transit of Mercury, 34 

Mohanger visits England, 52 

Marsden, Rev. Samuel, first Missionary, 55A 

Mount Egmout, 1840, Dr. Dieffenbach ascends, 98 

Manakau, the Company's settlers arrive, 110 

Maketu, a Maori, executed for murder of Mrs. Roberton and family, 112 

Martin, W. , Esq. (afterwards Sir William) Chief Justice, refuses a warrant against 

Raugihaeta, 118 

Murders, committed by natives, 151 
Masonic Festival, N. Z. P. Lodge, 198 
Maori Parliament, the first, 228, meeting of, 226 
Mail Service, the first regular, 231 
Mantell, the Hon. N. B. D. 199 
Maryborough created a Province, 246 
Military force under General Cameron, 265 
Moutua, battle of, 280 

Matene, Te Whi Whi, resists Hau HaufSm, 294 
Maoris treacherously kill convoys of peace, 301 
Moutua Monument, unveiled, 302 
Maori, the first elected M.H.R., 317 

Maoris take European land at New Plymouth and plough it, 372, settlers resist, 377 
Moorhouse, W. S., died, 393 
Maning, Judge (Old New Zealand) died, 401 
Missionaries, the first, sailed in the "Duff," 435, 440, 441, 442 
Marsden, Rev. Samuel, 55A, 436, 438, 439 
Miscellaneous, 419 to 437 
Minerals, 454 
Manufactories, 460 

MC. 

MqDonnell, Lieutenant, R.N., temporary British resident in Hokianga, 1835, 68 
McLean, Mr. (afterwards Sir Donald,) meeting with Wiremu Kingi, 347 
McLean, Sir Donald, died at Napier, 363 

N. 

North Island, divisions of, 3 

Name of New Zealand, 27, 37A 

New Zealand, first sighted by Cook, 34 

New Zealand, state of, 1817, 58, 1823 to 1828, 63 

New Zealand chiefs apply to England for protection, 65 

New Zealand, National flag, 70 

New Zealand, the united tribes of, 72 

New Zealand, unsatisfactory state of, 1836, 74, Memorials to the Crown, 74, 

committee of the House of Commons, 74 
New Zealand Association formed, 79 
New Zealand Company, 80, dissolved 188, debt, 189 
Ngati, a native in employ of New Zealand Company, sails in "Tory," 82 
New Zealand, a dependency of New South Wales, 90, Her Majesty's authority 

asserted, 90, boundaries, 269 
Nanto Bordelaise Company, 93 
New Zealand Company, a charter granted (1841) 104 



67 

|\| Continued. 

Newspaper, the first New Zealand paper published, 89A 
Newspaper, the first published in the north, 99 
New Zealand erected into a separate colony, 100A 
New Ulster, New Munster, New Leinster, 100A 
. New Plymouth Settlement formed, 106 
Nelson, fourth settlement of New Zealand Company, 111 
Native disturbances, 118 
Native allies, importance of 137, 138, 139 
New Zealand Society formed, 119, Institute, 314, opened, 321 
New Zealand Representative Constitution Act, 201, 204 
New Provinces Act, 232A 

Native Affairs, Imperial control abandoned, 254 
Native Land, surveys of, 318, Acts, 386 
Normanby, Marquis of, Governor, 352, term of office, 447 

o. 

" Oriental," arrival of, 85 

Otago settlement formed, 172 

Otago, first ships arrive (1848), 172 ; gold discovered at, 267 

" Orpheus," wreck of, 270 

Otago University opened, 343 

P. 

Provinces, how divided, 4 
Premiers, list of, 448 
Population, native, North Island, 15 
,, South Island, 17 

Port Nicholson settlers establish a form of government, 95; declared illegal by 

Lieutenant-Governor Hobson, 96 
Population increasing (1842), 117 ; (1858), 263, 264 
Pioneer settlers, activity of, 117 

" Prince Rupert," loss of at the Cape of Good Hope, 128 
Provinces, New Ulster, New Munster, 169 
Pensioner settlement, Auckland (1847), 174 
Pompalier, Roman Catholic Bishop, arrival of, 185, 444 
Pitt, Major- General, Lieutenant-Governor, death of, 196 
Provinces established, 202-204 ; abolished, 316, 357 
Provincial elections, 214 
Potatau proclaimed king, 230 ; death of, 230 
Pratt, General, arrives with troops to finish the Taranaki war, 236 
Pioneer settlers, reference to list of, 218A 
Pai Mariri heresy, outbreak of, 277, 292, 293 

Prisoners taken to Kawau, 285, 286 ; escape from hulk in Wellington, 304 
Peace proclaimed, 299, 306 
Poverty Bay massacre, 324 
Public Works Act, 334 
Political union of islands effected 

Prendergast, Sir James, administrator, 375, 382, 396, 447, 448A 
Population, census of, 1883, 388, 389 
Parehaka, fall of, 397 
Property Tax (1884), 404 

Pioneers of civilization, a brief sketch of, 426 to 432 
Pastoral, 457 
Pollen, Daniel, premier, 448 

Queen Charlotte Sound, 37 ^' 



68 

R. 

Responsible Government, 23 

Royal Society request the aid of George III., 30 

Rutherford, John, 58 

Russell, first seat of Government, 93 

Revans, Samuel, the father of the New Zealand press, 89A 

Russell, Lord John, dinner to, 107 

Rangihaeta, a turbulent chief, impedes settlement, 118 ; a constant dread, 154 ; 

defeated, 157 

Remuera, great feast at, 130 
Ruapekapeka, fall of (1846), 148, 149 
Ruaparaha suspected of disloyalty, 155 ; siezed with other chiefs at Porirua, 155 ; 

sent on board a man-of-war, 155 ; importance of the capture, 156 ; death 

of, 183 

Roman Catholic mission arrived in Wellington, 186 
Ring, Charles, discovered gold at Auckland, 205 
Ruaparaha, life of, by W. T. L. Travers, F.L.S., 183 
Rakiura (South Island), 38 

Railways, Lyttelton and Christchurch opened, 275 ; origin of, 275A 
Robinson, J.P., Superintendent, Nelson, drowned, 29lA 
Road boards, native district, 346 
Robinson, Sir Hercules, Governor, 368, 376, 447 
Rivers, management of, 402 
Roads and Bridges Acts, relating to, 403, 405 
Roman Catholic missions, 443 
Richmond, C. W., Judge, 448x 

8. 

South Island, divisions of, 4 
Stewarts Island, 38 
SurviUe, Captain De, 39 

Savage, Mr., took the first New Zealander to Great Britain, 52 
State of New Zealand, 1817, 58 

Soames, Joseph, Deputy Governor of New Zealand Company, 82 
Stanley, Captain of H.M.S. " Britomart," 93 

Shortland, Willoughby, Colonial Secretary, 98, Acting-Governor, 115, 447 
Selwyn, Dr. George Agustus, appointed the first Bishop of New Zealand, 108, 113 
Spain, William, land commissioner, arrival of, 127 
St. John's College Auckland, 181 
Steam Communication, 184, origin of, 184 A 
Stewart, discoverer of Stewarts Island, death of, 200 
Small Farm Settlements, 211 
Superintendents, Election of, (1853) 214 
Swainson, William, F.R.S., F.L.S, death of, 223A 
Steamer, the first commercial, arrival of, 215 
Smith, Captain W. M., R.A., loss of maps &c., 117 

Speaker, the first of the General Assembly, Mr. (Sir Charles) Clifford, 220 
Surveys of Native Land, 318 
Submarine Telegraph Acts, 336 
San Francisco Mail Service commenced, 362 
Special Settlements Acts, 364 
Selwyn (Lord Bishop of Lichfield) died, 369 
Scientific Societies Act, 406 
Swainson, Hon. W., Attorney-General, died, 407 
Sheehan, Hon. John, M.H.R., died, 408 
Stout, Sir Robert, Premier, 448, Industrial Exhibition, 410 

Stout, Hon. Robert (now Sir Robert) Premier, lays foundation stone of first woollen 
factory, North Island, 411, telegram to the Queen, 41lE 



69 

Continued. 

Sheep, Cattle and Horses, 451 

Spiritual conquest of New Zealand, 433 to 446 

Steam Navigation, brief history of, 21oA 

Sewell, Henry, Premier, 448 

Stafford, E. W., Premier, 448 

Smith, Captain B. A., Surveyor-General, 85 

T. 

Tasman, first discoverer of New Zealand, 11, 28 

Transit of Venus, 30, 32, 355, 398 

Turanga, Bay of, 34 

Thierry, Baron Charles Hyppolitus de, his Kingship, 71, died, 283 

" Tory," equipment of, 80, sighted New Zealand, 82 

Teira (Taylor) offers to sell land at Waitara, 234 

Teira receives part payment, 235 

Taranaki War, result of Tiera's transaction, 235, 236 

Travers, W. T. L., F.L.S., History of Te Bauparaha, 183 

Te Wahi Pounamu, Middle Island, 37A 

Troops continue to arrive, 249 

Taranaki War, renewal of, 258, White Cliff murders 325A 

Telegraph, first opened in New Zealand, 268, cable laid, 359 

Tauranga natives give allegiance to Colonel Greer, 281 

Te Banga, Tauranga natives defeated, 284 

Turanga, Paimariri at, 293, 294 

Tako Wi, resists Hau Hauism, 294 

Thompson, William, surrenders, 295, death of, 308 

Troops, about to leave, 300, ordered to leave, 326, leave 329 

Thames goldfield opened, 310 

Telegraphs, origin of, 268A 

Telephones, 315, origin of, 315A 

Titokowaru, outbreak of, 319 

Te Kooti, escape from Chatham Islands, 320, he and his followers at Poverty 
Bay, 324, defeated by Colonel Whitmore, 325, twice defeated, 325s, refuses 
to surrender, 331, attacked and dispersed, 335, living by plunder, 342 

Todd, surveyor, murdered by natives, 339 

Tamati Walker, celebrated chief, died, 345 

Te Whiti, a fanatical chief, 378, 390 

Triennial Parliaments, Act passed, 379 

Tennyson, Lord, ode on opening Colonial and Indian Exhibition, 1886, 411c 

Taxation, 425 

Tarawera Mount, a volcano, 1886, llln 

u, 

United Tribes of New Zealand recognised by the British Government, 72 
University endowments, 323, reconstituting Acts, 355 

V, 

Vancouver, Captain, touched at New Zealand, 46 

Viard, Dr., B.C. Bishop of Wellington, arrived, 186, died, 349 

Volkner, murderers of, executed, 305 

Vogel, Sir Julius, public works, 334, succeeds Dr. Featherston as Agent-General, 361, 

Editor of the first official Hand Book, 361 
Village Settlement Act, 373 
Venus, transit of, 32, 355, 398 
Volcanic eruption, Mount Tarawera, 1886, 41 1 1> 
Vogel, Sir Julius, Premier, 448, Industrial Exhibition, 409 
Vegetation, 455 



70 

W, 

Whalers resort to the Bay of Islands, 76 

Wakefield, Edward Gibbon, the promoter of colonization of New Zealand, 81 ; a 
fete at Plymouth, 106 ; arrived at Lyttelton, 208 ; arrived at Wellington, 
212 ; died, 252 

Wakefield, Colonel William, New Zealand Company's chief agent, sails in "Tory," 
82 ; sights New Zealand 16th August 1839, 82 ; in Queen Charlotte Sound, 
83 ; took formal possession of Port Nicholson, 84 ; death of, 177 

Wakefield< E. J., his Hand Book for New Zealand, 176A 

Waitangi, Treaty of, 91, 92 

Wakefield, Colonel W., President of Council, 95 

Wanganui settlement formed, 105 

Wakefield, Captain Arthur, R.N., resident agent New Zealand Company's settle- 
ment of Nelson, 111 

" Whitby," " Will Watch," Nelson pioneer ships, 111 

Wairau, massacre of Nelson settlers, 121 

Wairau, effect of the conflict in Europe, 122 ; fear of the settlers, 129 

Wanganui: a war party; H. M.S. " Hazard," 135; brutal murders, 162; natives 
attack the settlement, 163 ; Governor Grey sends troops, an engagement 
with the natives, ^64 

Waste Lands Kegulation (1853), 210 

Wairarapa small farm settlements, 211 

Wynyard, Colonel, Administrator, 219, 447 ; Superintendent of Auckland, 219 

Waitara, purchase of, 234 ; campaign, results of, 243 

Waikato, projected invasion of, 244 ; monster meeting, 251 

Westland created a province, 250 

Waikatos expel a Magistrate, 259 ; war commenced, 260 

War, reference to details of the, 266, 271, 272, 273 ; termination of campaign, 278 

Wellington made the seat of Government, 287 

Wanganui, second battle in defence of, 292 

Williams, John, a celebrated loyal chief, died, 292 

Waiapu, Bishop of, leaves Tauranga, 293 

Williams, Archdeacon Henry, died, 313, 445 

White Cliff murders, 325A 

Wanganui bridge opened, 344 

Wellington College opened, 354 

Williams, Bishop of Waiapu, died, 370, 446 

Wallace, Jehn, a pioneer settler died, aged 92, 380 

West Coast settlement, North Island, 384 ; reserves, 383 

Waikato, confiscated lands, 386 

Woollen factories, 411, 411x 

Wool, 449, 449A 

Whitaker, Frederick, premier, 448 

Weld, Frederick Aloysius, premier, 448 

Waterhouse, George M., premier, 448 

Whaling, 452 

Wakefield, Felix, 356A 

Williams, J. S., Judge, 448A 

Y. 

Yates, Eev. Mr., 65 

Young, G. F., present at a dejeune at Lovegroves West India Dock Tavern, Black- 
wall, 80 



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